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LC
Puerto Rican Vireo Vireo latimeri

Justification
Although this species may have a small range, it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Distribution and population
This species is endemic to Puerto Rico (to USA). It does not occur east of a line betwen Loiza Aldea, Caguas and Patillas (Raffaele 1983).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
Global population trends have not been quantified, but there is evidence of a decline (Faaborg et al. 1997). Recent studies in the 4,000 ha Guánica Forest Reserve have shown that the vireo has declined considerably over the past twenty years, while reproductive success has also decreased markedly (Faaborg et al. 1997). It is not known if this population collapse is island-wide or confined to Guánica (Faaborg et al. 1997). A significant factor in the species's decline is undoubtedly nest parasitism by Shiny Cowbirds Molothrus bonariensis, which are much commoner in Guánica than the rest of the island (H. A. Raffaele in litt. 1998).

Ecology
The species occurs chiefly in forest and undergrowth on limestone hills, and also in coffee plantations (AOU 1983). It also occurs in mangroves at Torrecilla-Piñones, but rather strangely is not found in any other mangrove areas on the island (Raffaele 1983). Breeding takes place from March to June (Raffaele et al. 1998).

Threats
Nest parasitism by Shiny Cowbirds Molothrus bonariensis has been shown to reduce breeding success to the extent that in 1990-1993 only 5% of active study nests fledged young vireos (Faaborg et al. 1997).

References
AOU. 1983. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D C.

Faaborg, J.; Dugger, K. M.; Arendt, W. J.; Woodworth, B. L.; Baltz, M. E. 1997. Population declines of the Puerto Rican Vireo in Guánica Forest. Wilson Bulletin 109: 195-202.

Raffaele, H. A. 1983. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Fondo Educativo Interamericano, San Juan.

Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.; Garrido, O.; Keith, A.; Raffaele, J. 1998. Birds of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M., Fisher, S.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Vireo latimeri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Vireonidae (Vireos and allies)
Species name author Baird, 1866
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species