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Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass 36.5 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 12,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.5 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 580,000-1,300,000 breeding pairs, equating to 1,740,000-3,900,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,550,000-15,600,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and possibly c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population has suffered a long term reduction in numbers and range since the mid 19th century in west and central Europe owing to increased rain during the breeding season caused by climatic changes, agricultural improvement, loss of orchards and unimproved meadows, replacement of hardwoods with conifer plantations and widespread over-use of pesticides and herbicides (del Hoyo et al. 2002). In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes    
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Algeria Native Extant      
Andorra Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes    
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Native Extant Yes    
Bhutan Vagrant Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Central African Republic Vagrant Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes    
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Finland Native Extant Yes    
France Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes  
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes
Guinea Vagrant Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant Yes    
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant Yes    
Japan Native Extant Yes    
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes    
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes    
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Mali Vagrant Extant      
Malta Native Extant   Yes  
Mauritania Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant Yes    
Niger Vagrant Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant     Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant Yes    
Somalia Vagrant Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant      
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Sudan Native Extant      
Sweden Native Extant Yes    
Switzerland Native Extant Yes    
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Togo Vagrant Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes    
USA Native Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Byala Reka site factsheet
Bulgaria Sredna Gora site factsheet
Bulgaria Strandzha site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Balkan site factsheet
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko site factsheet
Czech Republic Doupov hills site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Czech Republic Lednicke rybniky ponds (Lednice fish-ponds) site factsheet
Czech Republic Pálava site factsheet
France Vallée du Régino site factsheet
Russia (European) Bryansko-Zhizdrinskoye woodland site factsheet
Russia (European) Racheyski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Zhigulevsk Nature Reserve site factsheet
Serbia Deliblatska pescara site factsheet
Slovenia Kočevsko site factsheet
Slovenia Kozjansko site factsheet
Slovenia River Mura site factsheet
Slovenia Vipavski rob site factsheet
Switzerland Bregaglia valley site factsheet
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp site factsheet
Switzerland Generoso mountain site factsheet
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys site factsheet
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn site factsheet
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park site factsheet
Switzerland Maggia valley site factsheet
Switzerland Mont Tendre site factsheet
Switzerland Simplon region site factsheet
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt site factsheet
Ukraine Gomol'shans'ka forest site factsheet
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Medicine Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Jynx torquilla. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 12,700,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species