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Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass 36.5 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 12,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.5 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 580,000-1,300,000 breeding pairs, equating to 1,740,000-3,900,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,550,000-15,600,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and possibly c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population has suffered a long term reduction in numbers and range since the mid 19th century in west and central Europe owing to increased rain during the breeding season caused by climatic changes, agricultural improvement, loss of orchards and unimproved meadows, replacement of hardwoods with conifer plantations and widespread over-use of pesticides and herbicides (del Hoyo et al. 2002). In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes      
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant Yes      
Bhutan Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Central African Republic Vagrant Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes      
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Finland Native Extant Yes      
France Native Extant       Yes
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Guinea Vagrant Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant Yes      
Japan Native Extant Yes      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes  
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Mali Vagrant Extant        
Malta Native Extant   Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant Yes      
Niger Vagrant Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant Yes      
Somalia Vagrant Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Sudan Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant     Yes  
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Togo Vagrant Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes      
USA Native Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Byala Reka site factsheet
Bulgaria Sredna Gora site factsheet
Bulgaria Strandzha site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Balkan site factsheet
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko site factsheet
Czech Republic Doupov hills site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Czech Republic Lednicke rybniky ponds (Lednice fish-ponds) site factsheet
Czech Republic Pálava site factsheet
France Vallée du Régino site factsheet
Russia (European) Bryansko-Zhizdrinskoye woodland site factsheet
Russia (European) Racheyski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve site factsheet
Slovenia Kočevsko site factsheet
Slovenia Kozjansko site factsheet
Slovenia River Mura site factsheet
Slovenia Vipavski rob site factsheet
Switzerland Bregaglia valley site factsheet
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp site factsheet
Switzerland Generoso mountain site factsheet
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys site factsheet
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn site factsheet
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park site factsheet
Switzerland Maggia valley site factsheet
Switzerland Mont Tendre site factsheet
Switzerland Simplon region site factsheet
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt site factsheet
Ukraine Gomol'shans'ka forest site factsheet
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Medicine Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Jynx torquilla. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 12,700,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species