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Giant Honeyeater Gymnomyza viridis

Justification
Although this species may have a small range, it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
27 cm. Large, olive-green honeyeater, typically shy and retiring. Drab, olive-green plumage with slender, slightly down-curved bill. Subspecies brunneirostris has brown bill and olive legs, viridis has yellow bill and legs. Similar spp. Wattled Honeyeater Foulehaio carunculata is similarly drab but much smaller, has dark bare parts and yellow-and-black moustachial wattle. Voice Ringing keekow, usually run together, which on Viti Levu provides a loud and characteristic cacophony that reverberates through the forest. Much less vocal on other islands.

Distribution and population
This species is endemic to the three largest islands of Fiji, occurring as subspecies brunneirostris on Viti Levu and viridis on Vanua Levu and Taveuni. On Vanua Levu and Taveuni the species has not yet been surveyed. It may be restricted to western and central Vanua Levu and is apparently absent from the Natewa peninsula ( J. S. Kretzschmar in litt. 2000).

Population justification
Line transects were surveyed for the species in lowland forest and mahogany plantations at Colo-I-Suva (Viti Levu) in 2003. If the species occurs at similar densities elsewhere on Viti Levu, extrapolation would give a total population of 130,000 calling birds for the whole island (D. Jackson in litt. 2005). Two other recent surveys, based on triangulated point-counts and estimates of territory size respectively, gave extrapolated figures of 25,000 pairs and 50,000 pairs for Viti Levu (White in litt. 2005).

Trend justification
A slow to moderate and on-going population decline is suspected, based on continuing habitat loss, although the species shows a degree of tolerance of degraded forest.

Ecology
The species is usually found in the canopy of mature forest, where it is more often heard than seen (Pratt et al. 1987). Recent studies show that it has a greater degree of tolerance for degraded forest than was previously supposed (G. Dutson in litt. 2005), but appears intolerant of heavily logged forest. Territory size has been estimated at 6.6-7.9 ha (Kretzschmar 2000). It feeds on nectar, fruit, caterpillars, insects, spiders and lizards, and may sally beyond the forest fringe to flowering or fruiting trees (Clunie 1984). There is little information on breeding which occurs at least from June-October (Clunie 1984).

Threats
The main threat to this species comes from continuing loss and deterioration of its mature forest habitat. Although industrial logging has ceased on Viti Levu and Taveuni, forests on all three islands are being slowly degraded by logging for domestic use and agricultural expansion, with only c.50% of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu remaining forested (Watling 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
The species is protected under Fijian law. It occurs in nearly all protected areas with good forest including Tomaniivi and Ravilevu Nature Reserves, Bouma and Koroyanitu Heritage Parks, Waisali and Colo-i-Suva Forest Parks and the Garrick Memorial Park (D. Watling in litt. 2000).

Conservation Actions Proposed
•Develop a monitoring programme for the forest birds of the Fiji Islands as declines in population and the initiation of threatening processes could well be going unnoticed (SPREP 2000). •Develop in-country training in survey techniques (SPREP 2000). •Initiate management in gazetted nature reserves (D. Watling in litt. 2000). •Assess population densities in various forest-types. •Advocate the creation of community-based forest reserves. •Carry out surveys to determine the status of G. v. viridis on Vanua Levu and Taveuni.

References
Clunie, F. 1984. Birds of the Fiji bush. Fiji Museum, Suva.

Kretzschmar, J. S. 2000. The location of biodiversity hotspots in Fiji: an analysis of tree biodiversity; Technical Group 7 report, Fiji Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.

Pratt, H. D.; Bruner, P. L.; Berrett, D. G. 1987. A field guide to the birds of Hawaii and the tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

SPREP. 2000. Proceedings of the Melanesian Avifauna Conservation Workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 5-10 March, 2000.

Watling, D. 2000. Conservation status of Fijian birds. Technical Group 2 Report - Fiji Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
O'Brien, A., Temple, H.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gymnomyza viridis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Meliphagidae (Honeyeaters)
Species name author (Layard, 1875)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 15,900 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species