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Ochre-fronted Antpitta Grallaricula ochraceifrons
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Justification
This species is classified as Endangered because it has a very small range (it is known from just two locations) and its habitat is declining continuously (and rapidly) in one of the two areas.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
10.5 cm. Small, predominantly brown antpitta. Ochraceous-buff forecrown and eye-ring are most obvious features of male (former lacking in female). Otherwise largely brown upperparts, and heavily black-streaked white underparts, with buff-tinged flanks. Similar spp. Peruvian Antpitta G. peruviana lacks ochraceous-buff forecrown and lores in male, and has buff lores in female. Ochre-breasted Antpitta G. flavirostris has an ochraceous loral spot, and has buff, rather than white, underparts which are scalloped rather than streaked. Voice A high pitch disyllabic whistle

Distribution and population
Grallaricula ochraceifrons was discovered in 1976, and is known from three localities in the east Andes of Amazonas and San Martín, north Peru  (Graves et al. 1983, Hornbuckle 1999). In the Garcia area below Abra Patricia, San Martín, two specimens were collected in 1976, and a female trapped in 1998. The Abra Patricia area has since been visited by numerous ornithologists, with nine further specimens collected there in 2002 (D. Lane in litt. 2002). In the Cordillera de Colán, Amazonas, two specimens were collected in 1976 (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Hornbuckle 1999, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1998). It was recorded near Yambrasbamba, Amazonas, in 2011. Recent surveys suggest that the species is generally uncommon (F. Angulo Pratolongo in litt. 2012).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 167-666 mature individuals, rounded here to 150-700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 1.1-39.7% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (10 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over three generations.

Ecology
It inhabits dense undergrowth of epiphyte-laden, humid cloud-forest (Graves et al. 1983), with records between 1,850-2,500 m (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Hornbuckle 1999, D. Lane in litt. 2002, Schulenberg et al. 2007). It is extremely poorly known, owing mainly to a complete lack of field observations (Graves et al. 1983, Ridgely and Tudor 1994, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1998) , although its voice has now been documented (D. Lane in litt. 2002, Schulenberg et al. 2007).

Threats
The remaining areas of suitable habitat are being cleared for timber, agriculture and to secure ownership of the land, gradually around Abra Patricia, but more rapidly in the Cordillera de Colán (Davies et al. 1997, Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1998). More recent surveys have confirmed that habitat destruction in the region continues unabated, albeit more extensively at lower altitudes (Garcia-Moreno et al. 1997). Abra Patricia is under pressure owing to road improvements, recent immigration and population growth in the area (Garcia-Moreno et al. 1997, Hornbuckle 1999, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1998). Mining activity around Yambrasbamba contributes to habitat destruction both directly and by encouraging road-building in the vicinity (F. Angulo Pratolongo in litt. 2012).


Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs near the Alto Mayo Protected Forest, San Martín, but it is unclear whether the high-elevation forests are protected under this designation (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999, Hornbuckle 1999) In any case, the protected status appears to have had little or no effect on the rate of deforestation (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999). The newly-designated Abra Patricia-Alto Nieva Private Conservation Area aims to protect this species and Xenoglaux loweri. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey areas of suitable habitat on each of the isolated ridges in the region. Conduct basic biological research on the species (Hornbuckle 1999). Enforce the protection of habitat in Alto Mayo Protected Forest, and ensure that high-altitude forest is included within its boundary (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999, Hornbuckle 1999). Establish a protected area in the Cordillera de Colán (Davies et al. 1997).

References
Davies, C. W. N.; Barnes, R.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Fernandez, M.; Seddon, N. 1997. The conservation status of birds on the Cordillera de Colán, Peru. Bird Conservation International 7: 181-195.

García-Moreno, M. J.; Tibosch, J. H.; Ballón, G. 1997. Estado de conservación de la avifauna de la Cordillera Colán, Departamento de Amazonas, Perú.

Graves, G. R.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker, T. A. 1983. Grallaricula ochraceifrons, a new species of antpitta from northern Peru. Wilson Bulletin 95: 1-6.

Hornbuckle, J. 1999. The birds of Abra Patricia and the upper río Mayo, San Martín, north Peru. Cotinga 12: 11-28.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Sánchez Vega, I. and Dillon, M.O. 2000. Un nueva especie de Mikania (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae) de Piura, Perú. Arnaldoa 7(1-2): 1-12.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Hornbuckle, J., Lane, D., Angulo Pratolongo, F.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Grallaricula ochraceifrons. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Ochre-fronted antpitta (Grallaricula ochraceifrons) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Formicariidae (Antthrushes and antpittas)
Species name author Graves, O'Neill & Parker, 1983
Population size 150-700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,200 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species