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Bicoloured Antpitta Grallaria rufocinerea

Justification
This species has a small range and population, which are declining in response to habitat loss. It is consequently classified as Vulnerable (Collar et al. 1992).

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
16.5 cm. Medium-sized antpitta with grey underparts and rufous upperparts. Dark rufous-brown head, throat and upperparts. Dark grey chest to crissum. Black bill. Similar spp. Chestnut-naped Antpitta G. nuchalis is much larger, contrasting chestnut crown with reddish-brown back and blackish throat. Voice Long, clear, high whistled treeeee or double sounding treeeeaaaa, last part slurred lower.

Distribution and population
Grallaria rufocinerea occurs on both slopes of the Central Andes of Colombia (south Antioquia to west Putumayo) and north Ecuador (Sucumbíos). The subspecies romeroana is found in Putumayo and Cauca, Colombia, and was discovered in adjacent Sucumbíos, Ecuador in 1999 (Nilsson et al. 2001). The nominate subspecies has been found most frequently on the Volcán Ruíz-Tolima massif, but there are also historical records at two localities in Antioquia. In two protected areas on the south-west slope of Volcán Tolima, densities were estimated at 1.6-5 birds per 10 km of transect (Renjifo 1991b) and 3.7-5.7 birds per km of transect (Kattan and Beltran 1999). The population is presumed to have declined significantly during the 20th century.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be declining slowly, in line with rates of habitat loss within its range.

Ecology
It inhabits dense, humid montane forest and secondary growth near the treeline, at 2,200-3,150 m, locally as low as 1,950 m (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, López-Lanús et al. 2000). Two studies have found it most abundant in lower parts of its altitudinal range (Renjifo 1991b, Kattan and Beltran 1999). Most records are from forest with many small palms, ferns, vines and epiphytes, but it seems to tolerate considerable disturbance as long as forest cover is maintained. It apparently prefers primary to secondary forest (Renjifo 1991b), and closed-canopy secondary forest (or plantations with an open understorey) to dense vegetation in the early stages of regeneration (Kattan and Beltran 1999). In Navarco Reserve, it was found in remnant natural forest patches within conifer plantations (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). Inspection of mist-netted birds suggests that breeding occurs in March-May (Renjifo et al. 2002).

Threats
Widespread deforestation for agriculture and human settlement has taken place within its range, including the immediate vicinity of known locations. Forest east of Medellín, Antioquia, has long since been cleared. In the Toche valley, most forest clearance has taken place since the 1950s, primarily for coffee plantations, potatoes, beans and cattle-grazing, leaving scattered patches of mature secondary forest and natural vegetation covering only c.15% of land between 1,900 and 3,200 m (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, López-Lanús et al. 2000). In west Putumayo, continuing improvements to the road network have attracted many immigrants who have settled, logged and farmed previously uninhabited areas (Donegan and Salaman 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
It is well protected in Puracé National Park (Cauca), Ucumarí Regional Park and Los Nevados National Park (Risaralda), Navarco and Alto Quindío Acaime Reserves (Quindío) (Wege and Long 1995, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999, Renjifo et al. 2002). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to determine better its population and conservation status. Assess habitat cover throughout its range and search for additional populations. Protect the significant areas of pristine forest on the east Andean slopes (Renjifo 1991b). Ensure continued effective protection at existing reserves.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Donegan, T.; Salaman, P. 1999. Colombian EBA Project '99: rapid biodiversity assessments and conservation evaluations in the Colombian Andes.

Kattan, G. H.; Beltrán, J. W. 1999. Altitudinal distribution, habitat use, and abundance of Grallaria antpittas in the Central Andes of Colombia. Bird Conservation International 9: 271-281.

López-Lanús, B.; Salaman, P. G. W.; Cowley, T. P.; Arango, S.; Renjifo, L. M. 2000. The threatened birds of the Río Toche, Cordillera Central, Colombia. Cotinga 14: 17-23.

Nilsson, J.; Jönsson, R.; Krabbe, N. 2001. First record of Bicoloured Antpitta Grallaria rufocinerea from Ecuador, with notes on the species' vocalisations. Cotinga 16: 105-106.

Renjifo, L. M. 1991. Evaluación del estatus de la avifauna amenazada del Alto Quindío.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Krabbe, N., Salaman, P., Stiles, F.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Grallaria rufocinerea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Bicoloured antpitta (Grallaria rufocinerea) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Formicariidae (Antthrushes and antpittas)
Species name author Sclater & Salvin, 1879
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species