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Santa Marta Antpitta Grallaria bangsi

Justification
This species is classified as Vulnerable because it has a small range, which is fragmented and declining owing to habitat destruction caused by illegal agriculture, logging and burning. It is currently described as common, but its population size is unknown. However, it is likely to be undergoing a rapid decline as a result of habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
18 cm. Large, rather poorly-marked antpitta. Brown above with white lores and eyering. Underparts white streaked brown, except for bright ochraceous buff throat, brownish flanks (streaked white) and cinnamon buff underwing coverts. Similar spp. Practically the only Grallaria in its restricted range. May overlap with the very different Scaled Antpitta G. guatimalensis at lower elevations. Voice Frequent, loud, flat bob white.

Distribution and population
Grallaria bangsi is endemic to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, on the borders of Cesar, Magdalena and Guajira, north Colombia. It is described as common along the San Lorenzo ridge, but local and uncommon within the San Salvador valley on the northern slope, and the Río Frio valley on the western slope (R. Strewe in litt. 2003), although accurate population densities are unknown (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Renjifo et al. 2002).

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid population decline is suspected based on rates of habitat loss estimated using time series satellite imagery (Renjifo et al. 2002).

Ecology
It inhabits humid montane forest and intervening forest edge at 1,200-2,400 m (Renjifo et al. 2002), but is most common above 1,600 m (Hilty and Brown 1986, Ridgely and Tudor 1994). It is principally terrestrial, sometimes perching on low horizontal branches, and is generally less retiring and easier to see than congeners (Hilty and Brown 1986).

Threats
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is increasingly being destroyed and fragmented by illegal agricultural expansion, logging and burning (Renjifo et al. 2002). Only 15% of the sierra's vegetation is unaltered, and this species has probably lost 51% of its habitat (Renjifo et al. 2002). The south-east slope of the sierra is extensively deforested, whilst the west slope has been largely cleared for illegal marijuana plantations, and subsequently sprayed with herbicide by the government (Stattersfield et al. 1998).

Conservation Actions Underway
It is found within Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park. Conservation Actions Proposed
Determine more accurately its geographic and altitudinal range in the Sierra Nevada (Renjifo et al. 2002). Conduct censuses to estimate the density and state of the population, thus enabling an assessment of suitable habitat and the design of conservation measures (Renjifo et al. 2002).

References
Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Strewe, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Grallaria bangsi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Santa Marta antpitta (Grallaria bangsi) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Formicariidae (Antthrushes and antpittas)
Species name author Allen, 1900
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species