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Rufous-fronted Antthrush Formicarius rufifrons

Justification
This species is considered Near Threatened as it is known from only a small range, and is apparently rare and patchily distributed. However, the range is not yet severely fragmented or restricted to few locations (Collar et al. 1992). For these reasons, the species is classified as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
18 cm. A dark brown hen-like terrestrial bird. Upperparts rich brown with orange-rufous forecrown. More rufescent on uppertail-coverts. Underparts sooty grey, browner on lower belly. Dark cocked tail. Similar spp. Black-faced Antthrush F. analis has a black area around throat, lacks the rufous front and has black, instead of cinnamon-rufous underwing-coverts. Voice The song is a rising and then falling series of clear, monotonic whistles of c.5 seconds. Hints Very hard to see, best located by voice.

Distribution and population
Formicarius rufifrons was formerly known only from the río Madre de Dios and its tributaries, Peru, but during the 1990s it was found on the upper rio Juruá in Acre, Brazil (Whittaker and Oren 1999), río Tahuamanu in Pando, Bolivia (L. Jammes in litt. 1999, T. S. Schulenberg in litt. 1999) and río Urubamba in Cuzco, Peru (H. Lloyd in litt. 1999, N. Gerhart in litt. 2000), greatly extending its known range. It is generally rare and localised within this range.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'rare' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 0.1-8.6% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (10 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.

Ecology
This species is a rare and rather unpredictably distributed inhabitant of riverine floodplain thickets, where tall forest with shaded understorey lies adjacent to second-growth vegetation with a dense understorey (Kratter 1995) of, for example, Guadua bamboo or Heliconia (Schulenberg et al. 2007).

Threats
In some areas, it is threatened by actual and impending human settlement and agricultural development, but most parts of the range are remote and as yet undisturbed.

Conservation Actions Underway
Significant populations are protected within Manu National Park and Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone in Peru (H. Lloyd in litt. 1999). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys of suitable habitats within and surrounding the known range to determine its true distribution and abundance. Conduct ecological studies to determine this species's precise habitat requirements. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Kratter, A. W. 1995. Status, habitat and conservation of the Rufous-throated Antthrush Formicarius rufifrons. Bird Conservation International 5(2/3): 391-404.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Whittaker, A.; Oren, D. C. 1999. Important ornithological records from the Rio Juruá, western Amazonia, including twelve additions to the Brazilian avifauna. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 235-260.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Gerhart, N., Jammes, L., Lloyd, H., Schulenberg, T.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Formicarius rufifrons. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Formicariidae (Antthrushes and antpittas)
Species name author Blake, 1957
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 11,800 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species