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Bolivian Recurvebill Simoxenops striatus

Justification
This species's range and abundance have been recently studied, and it has been found to be more widely distributed and commoner than previously thought (Collar et al. 1992). It is no longer considered to have a small range and is found within large areas of intact primary forest. Its presence has been confirmed at more than 10 locations, and it is suspected to be undergoing only slow rates of population decline. For these reasons, it has been downlisted to Least Concern, as it can no longer be considered to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN criteria.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
19 cm. Large-billed furnariid. Dark rufous-brown head, upperparts and wings, with buff supercilium and prominent buff streaking on head, neck and back. Underparts buffy-rufous. Bright rufous tail. Upturned bill. Similiar spp. Other similar arboreal furnariids have different bill-shapes. Voice Harsh, accelerating and slightly rising rattle lasting 2-3 seconds.

Distribution and population
Simoxenops striatus is restricted to the Yungas (east Andean foothills) of La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, central and west Bolivia, and extreme south west Puno, Peru. Although it was previously thought to be rather rare, and indeed was "lost" for 48 years, a recent study has found it to be not uncommon in the Cordillerea Mosetenes, where its occurs at a density of 20 pairs per km2  (Herzog et al. 2008).

Population justification
Herzog et al. (undated) calculated the population to be c.100,000 individuals, which is precautionarily placed in the band 50,000-99,999 individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 9.1-9.5% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (11 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.

Ecology
It inhabits foothill evergreen forests in a narrow elevational band between 640 and 1,500 m  (B. Hennessey in litt. 1999). Despite reports to the contrary, it shows a strong association with Guadua bamboo (Herzog et al. 2008). However, it is not an obligate bamboo specialist and persists (albeit at much lower densities) in humid and semi-deciduous forest without Guadua bamboo, where it forages in dense understorey or vine tangles, often near treefall gaps (Herzog et al. 2008).

Threats
It is threatened by deforestation within its small geographic and elevational range, especially in La Paz and Cochabamba. Its preferred forest habitat is more accessible and easier to burn than true montane forest, and the soils are suited to domestic agriculture and the cultivation of cash crops. Consequently, the region is a favoured target for colonists from the altiplano, and encroachment into protected areas is occurring. Exploration for natural resources is undertaken in Bolivia's national parks, making mining a potential future threat (B. Hennessey in litt. 1999). Nevertheless, vast amounts of pristine forest remain in inaccessible areas within the species's elevational range, although it may be excluded by the harsh climate in some of these areas (J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999, B. Hennessey in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Pilón Lajas Biosphere Reserve and Indigenous Territory, La Paz (B. Hennessey in litt. 1999), Carrasco National Park, Cochabamba (B. Hennessey in litt. 1999) and Amboró National Park, Santa Cruz (Wege and Long 1995), and is predicted to occur in Madidi National Park, La Paz (Remsen and Parker 1995, B. Hennessey in litt. 1999). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to assess the species's population size. Monitor rates of deforestation within its range. Maintain the integrity of Amboró and Carrasco National Parks, particularly with respect to encroachment by settlers.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Herzog, K. S.; Hennessey, A. B.; Kessler, M.; Garcia-Soliz, V. 2008. Distribution, natural history and conservation status of two near-threatened endemics of the Bolivian Yungas, Bolivian Recurvebill Simoxenops striatus and Yungas Antwren Myrmotherula grisea. Bird Conservation International 18: 331-348.

Herzog, S.K., Hennessey, A.B., Kessler, M. and Garcia-Soliz, V.H. 2008. Distribution, natural history and conservation status of two endemics of the Bolivian Yungas, Bolivian recurvebill Simoxenops striatus and Yungas antwren Myrmotherula grisea. Bird Conservation International 18(4): 331-348.

Parker, T. A.; Bates, J.; Cox, G. 1992. Rediscovery of the Bolivian Recurvebill with notes on other little-known species of the Bolivian Andes. Wilson Bulletin 104: 173-177.

Remsen, J. V.; Parker, T. A. 1995. Bolivia has the opportunity to create the planet's richest park for terrestrial biota. Bird Conservation International 5: 181-200.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Whitney, B. M.; Rowlett, J. L.; Rowlett, R. A. 1994. Distributional and other noteworthy records for some Bolivian birds. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 114: 149.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T.

Contributors
Fjeldså, J., Hennessey, A., MacLeod, R., Tobias, J., Rheindt, F., Herzog, S.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Simoxenops striatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Furnariidae (Ovenbirds)
Species name author (Carriker, 1935)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 81,400 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species