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Alagoas Foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi
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Justification
This species is considered Critically Endangered because it is confined to two sites containing extremely small and fragmented patches of severely threatened forest. Unless there is urgent conservation action, it could become extinct very shortly.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
18 cm. Plain rufous-brown furnariid. Dull ochraceous forehead and lores, scaled black. Blackish-brown crown, scaled dark olive-brown. Narrow buffy-cinnamon supercilium and subocular stripe. Dull chestnut eye-stripe. Blackish stripe from mandible to auriculars, spotted chestnut. Olivaceous-chestnut nape and rest of upperparts. More rufous rump and tail. Pale rufous underparts, tinged olive on sides of belly and crissum. Similar spp. Black-capped Foliage-gleaner P. atricapillus is much more rufous, with darker head pattern. Voice Slightly descending series of whistles uü-uü-uü and a thürr alarm call.

Distribution and population
Philydor novaesi has only ever been recorded at two sites in Alagoas and Pernambuco, north-east Brazil. It was first discovered at Murici (Alagoas) in 1979, when it was described as relatively conspicuous and easy to locate. Subsequent surveys found the species to be rare, and there were no confirmed records between 1992 and 1998. Single individuals were found in 1998 and 1999 (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999), four birds in 2000 (J. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000), a further individual in early 2007 and television footage of one individual in 2009 (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009), indicating that the species is (barely) extant. It was discovered at Frei Caneca Private Reserve (Pernambuco) in April 2003 (Cotinga 2003 20:13, Mazar-Barnett et al. 2005), and at the adjacent Jaqueira (Frei Caneca) Reserve (recently purchased by SAVE Brasil) where two individuals were observed in 2007/2008 (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009) and the species could still be located there in late 2010 and early 2011 (WikiAves undated). These two areas are located on the Serra do Urubu (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009). The total global population is presumed to be extremely small.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 50-249 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 75-374 individuals in total, rounded here to 70-400 individuals.

Trend justification
The species is thought to have declined rapidly owing to the widespread and ongoing clearance of forest through logging, felling for charcoal and for conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland.

Ecology
It inhabits the edges of clearings in interior upland forest at 400-550 m, from the understorey to the subcanopy, and has been observed in selectively logged and old secondary forests. Birds have been found singly, in pairs or small groups, and often join mixed-species flocks. Food is gleaned from leaves, bark, crevices and debris, and consists of insects, including larvae taken from dead wood, beetles, grasshoppers and ants. There is little breeding information, but an immature was collected in January, and birds in February were moulting (Ridgely and Tudor 1994). One of the individuals at the Jaqueira (Frei Caneca) Reserve in 2007/2008 was observed in secondary forest (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009).

Threats
Forest at Murici has been reduced from 70 km2 in the 1970s, to c.30 km2 of highly disturbed and fragmented habitat in 1999 (J. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000), largely as a result of logging and conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. In January 1999, new logging roads were evident and such forest fragments are severely threatened by fires spreading from adjacent plantations (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999, J. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000). The Frei Caneca private reserve and adjacent SAVE Brasil protected area are still suffering from ongoing illegal charcoal exploitation (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009). The massive clearance of Atlantic forest in Alagoas and Pernambuco has left few other sites likely to support populations of this species. Having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its range, this species is potentially susceptible to climate change (BirdLife International unpublished data).

Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected under Brazilian law. International and national efforts to ensure the effective protection of Murici resulted in the creation of the Murici Ecological Station in 2001, encompassing 6,116 ha (J. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000). Frei Caneca is a private reserve protecting 630 ha of forest (Cotinga 2003 20:13). SAVE Brasil purchased a property adjacent to the Frei Caneca Private Nature Reserve, increasing the area of protected forest at the Serra do Urubu to 1,000 ha (J. M. Goerck in litt. 2005, P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009). A population census of the species at Serra do Urubu was planned for early 2008 (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009). Efforts to begin environmental education initiatives and to provide local people with a viable alternative to charcoal production are underway. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey any remnant patches of upland Atlantic forest in Alagoas (such as Usina Serra Grande) and Pernambuco for this species. Ensure the de facto protection of Murici Ecological Station and forest on the Serra do Urubu. Estimate the population on the Serra do Urubu (Frei Caneca and SAVE Brasil protected area). Study the species's ecology and breeding biology. Implement environmental education programmes. Monitor population trends at known sites.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

WikiAves. undated. Fotos feitas em Jaqueira/PE da espécie limpa-folha-do-nordeste (Philydor novaesi). Available at: http://www.wikiaves.com.br/midias.php?tm=f&t=c&s=11127&c=2607950. (Accessed: 07/10/2013).

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Bird, J., Capper, D., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J & Symes, A.

Contributors
Develey, P., Goerck, J. & Whittaker, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Philydor novaesi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Alagoas foliage-gleaner (Philydor novaesi) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Furnariidae (Ovenbirds)
Species name author Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1983
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 36 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species