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Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 15,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,500,000-4,600,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: <c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes    
Albania Native Extant   Yes    
Algeria Vagrant Extant        
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes    
Bahamas Vagrant Extant        
Bangladesh Vagrant Extant        
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant   Yes    
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Canada Native Extant     Yes Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant   Yes    
Cyprus Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Estonia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes    
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Georgia Native Extant        
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant   Yes    
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Hungary Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iceland Native Extant   Yes    
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant   Yes    
Israel Vagrant Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant   Yes    
Latvia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant   Yes    
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Malta Vagrant Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
North Korea Native Extant        
Norway Native Extant     Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Serbia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
South Korea Native Extant        
Spain Native Extant   Yes    
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes    
Syria Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Vagrant Extant        
Turkey Native Extant   Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Albania Drini Delta site factsheet
Albania Lake Ohrid site factsheet
Albania Narta Lagoon site factsheet
Canada Cumberland Marshes site factsheet
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sayram Nur site factsheet
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Lovns Bredning site factsheet
Denmark Northern Kattegat site factsheet
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor site factsheet
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet site factsheet
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav site factsheet
Estonia Irbe strait site factsheet
Estonia Kabli site factsheet
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare site factsheet
Estonia Küdema bay site factsheet
Estonia Luitemaa site factsheet
Estonia Mullutu site factsheet
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar site factsheet
Estonia Pakri site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago site factsheet
Finland Oulu region wetlands site factsheet
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands site factsheet
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan site factsheet
Hungary Lake Balaton site factsheet
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon site factsheet
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf site factsheet
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano site factsheet
Italy Venice lagoon site factsheet
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou site factsheet
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou site factsheet
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9 site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River site factsheet
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake site factsheet
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast site factsheet
Latvia Irbe strait site factsheet
Latvia Salacgriva-Vitrupe site factsheet
Latvia Ziemupe-Riva coastal site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon site factsheet
Mongolia Darkhad Depression site factsheet
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Oigon Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Otgontenger Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Tolbo Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvs Lake site factsheet
Netherlands Grevelingen site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Volkerak site factsheet
Norway Øvre Anárjohka site factsheet
Norway Reisa site factsheet
Poland Vistula river mouth site factsheet
Romania Argeş reservoir site factsheet
Romania Black Sea site factsheet
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti site factsheet
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Olt valley site factsheet
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Angara river source site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Babushkina bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Forty islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Shantar islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lebedinoye and Svetloye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Vizhay river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'" site factsheet
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river site factsheet
Russia (European) Floodplain of Cheptsa river site factsheet
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye site factsheet
Russia (European) Kuloy river site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake Ayke site factsheet
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan site factsheet
Russia (European) Morkushskoye reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra site factsheet
Russia (European) Seskar island site factsheet
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island site factsheet
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe site factsheet
Russia (European) Unskaya bay site factsheet
Serbia Derdap gorge site factsheet
Serbia Labudovo okno site factsheet
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain site factsheet
Slovenia River Drava site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Kungsbackafjorden site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Torslandaviken site factsheet
Sweden Stigfjorden fjord site factsheet
Sweden Torö - Muskö site factsheet
Sweden Ystad - Hörte site factsheet
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages site factsheet
Ukraine Dnipro delta site factsheet
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar) site factsheet
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop site factsheet
Ukraine Lyman lake site factsheet
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg site factsheet
USA Prince William Sound site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Bucephala clangula. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 15,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment