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LC
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 15,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,500,000-4,600,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: <c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes  
Albania Native Extant   Yes  
Algeria Vagrant Extant      
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes  
Bahamas Vagrant Extant      
Bangladesh Vagrant Extant      
Belarus Native Extant      
Belgium Native Extant   Yes  
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes  
Canada Native Extant     Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant   Yes  
Cyprus Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Estonia Native Extant     Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes  
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
Georgia Native Extant      
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant   Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Hungary Native Extant     Yes
Iceland Native Extant   Yes  
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant   Yes  
Israel Vagrant Extant      
Italy Native Extant   Yes  
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant   Yes  
Latvia Native Extant     Yes
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant   Yes  
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Malta Vagrant Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes Yes
Morocco Vagrant Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Norway Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palestinian Authority Territories Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Poland Native Extant     Yes
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Romania Native Extant     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant     Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes
Serbia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes Yes
South Korea Native Extant      
Spain Native Extant   Yes  
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant   Yes Yes
Sweden Native Extant     Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes  
Syria Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Vagrant Extant      
Turkey Native Extant   Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant      
USA Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Albania Drini Delta site factsheet
Albania Lake Ohrid site factsheet
Albania Narta Lagoon site factsheet
Canada Cumberland Marshes site factsheet
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sayram Nur site factsheet
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Lovns Bredning site factsheet
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor site factsheet
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet site factsheet
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav site factsheet
Estonia Irbe strait site factsheet
Estonia Kabli site factsheet
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare site factsheet
Estonia Küdema bay site factsheet
Estonia Luitemaa site factsheet
Estonia Mullutu site factsheet
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar site factsheet
Estonia Pakri site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago site factsheet
Finland Oulu region wetlands site factsheet
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands site factsheet
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan site factsheet
Hungary Lake Balaton site factsheet
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Japan Lake Furenko and nearby wetlands site factsheet
Japan Notsuke bay, Odaito site factsheet
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9 site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake site factsheet
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast site factsheet
Latvia Irbe strait site factsheet
Latvia Salacgriva-Vitrupe site factsheet
Latvia Ziemupe-Riva coastal site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon site factsheet
Mongolia Darkhad Depression site factsheet
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Oigon Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Otgontenger Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Tolbo Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvs Lake site factsheet
Netherlands Grevelingen site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Volkerak site factsheet
Poland Vistula river mouth site factsheet
Romania Argeş reservoir site factsheet
Romania Black Sea site factsheet
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti site factsheet
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Olt valley site factsheet
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Angara river source site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Babushkina bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Forty islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Shantar islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Big and Small Akh lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Greater and Lesser Vagilsky Tuman site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurkure mountain site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lebedinoye and Svetloye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Teletskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Vizhay river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'" site factsheet
Russia (European) Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river site factsheet
Russia (European) Floodplain of Cheptsa river site factsheet
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye site factsheet
Russia (European) Kuloy river site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake Ayke site factsheet
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan site factsheet
Russia (European) Morkushskoye reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra site factsheet
Russia (European) Seskar island site factsheet
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island site factsheet
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe site factsheet
Russia (European) Unskaya bay site factsheet
Serbia Labudovo Okno site factsheet
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain site factsheet
Slovenia River Drava site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Kungsbackafjorden site factsheet
Sweden Stigfjorden fjord site factsheet
Sweden Torö - Muskö site factsheet
Sweden Ystad - Hörte site factsheet
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages site factsheet
Ukraine Dnipro delta site factsheet
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar) site factsheet
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop site factsheet
Ukraine Lyman lake site factsheet
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Bucephala clangula. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 15,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species