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Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Vulnerable A4bce 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2011 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,570,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,570,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.6,200,000-6,800,000 individuals (Delany and Scott 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: Surveys of the wintering population in the Baltic sea indicate that the species has undergone a precipitous decline there, from c.4,272,000 individuals in 1992-1993 to c.1,486,000 individuals in 2007-2009 (Skov et al. 2011). There is considerable uncertainty over the trends of smaller populations in Europe outside the Baltic sea (300,000 individuals [Delany and Scott 2006]), in Greenland and Iceland (100,000-150,000 individuals [Delany and Scott 2006]), and East Siberia (500,000-1,000,000 [Delany and Scott 2006]), and North America (c.1,000,000 individuals [Delany and Scott 2006]), rendering the estimation of its global trend very difficult. However, the overall rate of decline is likely to approach 50% over three generations (27 years), from 1993 until 2020.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Armenia Vagrant Extant        
Austria Native Extant   Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant     Yes  
Belgium Native Extant   Yes    
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Vagrant Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Canada Native Extant     Yes Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Croatia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes    
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Estonia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes    
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant   Yes    
Germany Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greece Native Extant   Yes    
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extant   Yes    
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant   Yes    
Israel Vagrant Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kazakhstan Native Extant        
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Latvia Native Extant   Yes    
Lithuania Native Extant   Yes    
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Mexico Native Extant        
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes    
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes    
North Korea Native Extant        
Norway Native Extant     Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Romania Native Extant   Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Serbia Native Extant   Yes    
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes    
South Korea Native Extant        
Spain Native Extant   Yes    
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes      
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes    
Turkey Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes  
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Baie de Gaspé site factsheet
Canada Cap d'Espoir site factsheet
Canada East Point site factsheet
Canada Netitishi Point site factsheet
Canada Prince Edward Point site factsheet
Canada Tadoussac site factsheet
Canada West End of Lake Ontario site factsheet
Denmark Ronne Banke site factsheet
Denmark Rønne Banke site factsheet
Estonia Irbe strait site factsheet
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare site factsheet
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar site factsheet
Estonia Pakri site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds site factsheet
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago site factsheet
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä site factsheet
Finland Shallowbanks of Espoo-Helsinki archipelago site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land site factsheet
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands site factsheet
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast site factsheet
Latvia Irbe strait site factsheet
Lithuania Marine waters along the Curonian Spit site factsheet
Norway Altaelvmunningen site factsheet
Norway Balsfjord site factsheet
Norway Blåfjella-Skjækerfjella site factsheet
Norway Dovrefjell site factsheet
Norway Froan site factsheet
Norway Hardangervidda site factsheet
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord site factsheet
Norway Jæren site factsheet
Norway Lista wetland system site factsheet
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord site factsheet
Norway Ørlandet site factsheet
Norway Øvre Anárjohka site factsheet
Norway Persfjorden site factsheet
Norway Reisa site factsheet
Norway Saltstraumen & Skjerstadfjorden site factsheet
Norway Slettnes site factsheet
Norway Stjørdalsfjord site factsheet
Norway Tanamunningen site factsheet
Norway Tautra & Svaet site factsheet
Norway Varanger Peninsula site factsheet
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya) site factsheet
Norway Været site factsheet
Poland Central Polish coastal waters site factsheet
Poland Pomeranian bay site factsheet
Poland Slupsk bank site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Chaun delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) First Kuril strait site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Inchoun and Uelen lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Keremesit-Sundrun watershed site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Korf bay (northern part) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lena delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Terpyey-Tumus site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Yana delta site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river site factsheet
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Burnaya River Mouth site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula site factsheet
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra site factsheet
Russia (European) Vaygach island site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island) site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) South Spitsbergen National Park site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve site factsheet
Sweden Bråviken - Hävringe site factsheet
Sweden Coastal areas of eastern Gotland island site factsheet
Sweden Hoburgs Bank site factsheet
Sweden Lake Ånnsjön-Storlien site factsheet
Sweden Northern Midsjö Bank site factsheet
Sweden Taavavuoma site factsheet
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay site factsheet
USA Beaufort Sea Nearshore site factsheet
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore site factsheet
USA Kotzebue Sound 163W66N site factsheet
USA Point Lay Marine site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Clangula hyemalis. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,570,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment