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Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Vulnerable A4bce 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2011 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,570,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,570,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.6,200,000-6,800,000 individuals (Delany and Scott 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: Surveys of the wintering population in the Baltic sea indicate that the species has undergone a precipitous decline there, from c.4,272,000 individuals in 1992-1993 to c.1,486,000 individuals in 2007-2009 (Skov et al. 2011). There is considerable uncertainty over the trends of smaller populations in Europe outside the Baltic sea (300,000 individuals [Delany and Scott 2006]), in Greenland and Iceland (100,000-150,000 individuals [Delany and Scott 2006]), and East Siberia (500,000-1,000,000 [Delany and Scott 2006]), and North America (c.1,000,000 individuals [Delany and Scott 2006]), rendering the estimation of its global trend very difficult. However, the overall rate of decline is likely to approach 50% over three generations (27 years), from 1993 until 2020.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Armenia Vagrant Extant      
Austria Native Extant   Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes  
Belarus Native Extant     Yes
Belgium Native Extant   Yes  
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes  
Canada Native Extant     Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Croatia Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes  
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes
Estonia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant   Yes  
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant   Yes  
Germany Native Extant   Yes Yes
Greece Native Extant   Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant   Yes  
Iceland Native Extant      
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant   Yes  
Israel Vagrant Extant      
Italy Native Extant   Yes  
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant      
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Latvia Native Extant   Yes  
Lithuania Native Extant   Yes  
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Mexico Native Extant      
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes  
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes  
North Korea Native Extant      
Norway Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant   Yes Yes
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Romania Native Extant   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes
Serbia Native Extant   Yes  
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes  
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes  
South Korea Native Extant      
Spain Native Extant   Yes  
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant   Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes    
Sweden Native Extant     Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes  
Turkey Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant   Yes  
USA Native Extant Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Baie de Gaspé site factsheet
Canada Cap d'Espoir site factsheet
Canada East Point site factsheet
Canada Netitishi Point site factsheet
Canada Prince Edward Point site factsheet
Canada Tadoussac site factsheet
Canada West End of Lake Ontario site factsheet
Denmark Rønne Banke site factsheet
Estonia Irbe strait site factsheet
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare site factsheet
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar site factsheet
Estonia Pakri site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds site factsheet
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago site factsheet
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land site factsheet
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast site factsheet
Latvia Irbe strait site factsheet
Lithuania Marine waters along the Curonian Spit site factsheet
Poland Central Polish coastal waters site factsheet
Poland Pomeranian bay site factsheet
Poland Slupsk bank site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Chaun delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) First Kuril strait site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Inchoun and Uelen lagoons site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Keremesit-Sundrun lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Korfa bay (northern part) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lena delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Terpyay-Tumus site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Yana delta site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river site factsheet
Russia (European) Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Burnaya River Mouth site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula site factsheet
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra site factsheet
Russia (European) Vaygach island site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island) site factsheet
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden site factsheet
Sweden Bråviken - Hävringe site factsheet
Sweden Coastal areas of eastern Gotland island site factsheet
Sweden Hoburgs Bank site factsheet
Sweden Northern Midsjö Bank site factsheet
Sweden Taavavuoma site factsheet
USA Beaufort Sea Nearshore site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Species mortality


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Clangula hyemalis. Downloaded from on 10/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 10/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,570,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species