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Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,170,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing Suspected -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.190,000-380,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at <c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Austria Vagrant Extant        
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Canada Native Extant     Yes Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Croatia Vagrant Extant        
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
France Vagrant Extant        
Germany Vagrant Extant        
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
Italy Vagrant Extant        
Japan Native Extant        
Kazakhstan Vagrant Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Mongolia Vagrant Extant        
Montenegro Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Poland Vagrant Extant        
Russia Native Extant        
Russia (Asian) Native Extant        
Serbia Vagrant Extant        
Slovakia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
South Korea Native Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Switzerland Vagrant Extant        
Ukraine Vagrant Extant        
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
USA Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Lambert Channel/Hornby Island Waters site factsheet
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) Qilangaarsuit and adjacent islands site factsheet
Iceland Mývatn-Laxá site factsheet
Iceland Ósar site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Babushkina bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kekurny bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Shantar islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
USA Amchitka Island Colony site factsheet
USA Eastern Kodiak Island Marine site factsheet
USA Glacier Bay & Icy Strait site factsheet
USA Prince William Sound site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline Major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools Major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp Major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) Major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel Major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs Major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy Major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud Major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) Major breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Histrionicus histrionicus. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,170,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment