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VU
Steller's Eider Polysticta stelleri

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,060,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 968,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-1000000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4 - - -
Population justification: Various population estimates include: c.10,000-15,000 wintering individuals in north Norway and the south-east Baltic (based on a count of 4,297 off Kola Peninsula in April 2003 [Krasnov et al. 2004], 2,250 in the south Baltic in 2003 [Zydelis et al. 2006] and c.2,000-4,000 individuals wintering off Norway [unpublished information supplied by Wetlands International Specialist Groups to Wetlands International 2006]); c.100,000-110,000 wintering individuals in the north Pacific (counts in north America declined from 137,904 in 1992 to 77,329 in 2003, to 74,369 in 2011, forming basis of 2003 north American population estimate of 90,000-95,000 individuals [K. Laing in litt. 2005 to Wetlands International 2006]; however, the population has since declined to 74,369 individuals in 2011 [Larned 2012]); c.20,000 migrating individuals through the Kamchatka Peninsula in spring (Gerasimov and Gerasimov 2003) and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: Based on population estimates of birds staging in southwest Alaska, the Alaskan population declined by by 2.3% per year since 1992 (or 46% over 20 years), during 1992-2011 (Larned 2012). Declines in Europe have been even steeper, with numbers wintering in the Baltic declining by an estimated 13% per year between 1994 and 2003 and by 8% per year in Norway between 1985 and 2003 (Žydelis et al. in prep.). It is unclear, however, whether these declines were genuine, or reflect a redistribution to other wintering areas. Conservatively assuming the Asian population was stable over this time, and taking into account the smaller relative size of the European population, a precautionary decline rate of 30-49 % over 12 years is assumed.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
China (mainland) Vagrant Extant        
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Estonia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Finland Native Extant   Yes Yes  
France Vagrant Extant        
Germany Vagrant Extant        
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
Japan Native Extant   Yes    
Latvia Native Extant   Yes    
Lithuania Native Extant   Yes    
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Norway Native Extant   Yes    
Poland Native Extant   Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
USA Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Estonia Koorunõmme site factsheet
Estonia Küdema bay site factsheet
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula site factsheet
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago site factsheet
Finland Lågskär-Nyhamn site factsheet
Latvia Seaway to the border with Lithuania site factsheet
Lithuania Marine waters along the continental part of Lithuania site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Commander islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) First Kuril strait site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Korf bay (northern part) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kytalyk site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lena delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Terpyey-Tumus site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Vankarem lowlands and Kolyuchin bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Yana delta site factsheet
Russia (European) Bezymyannaya and Gribovaya Bays and adjoining waters site factsheet
Russia (European) Seskar island site factsheet
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island site factsheet
Russia (European) Terski coast site factsheet
USA Cape Senyavin site factsheet
USA Chignik Bay site factsheet
USA Chiniak Bay site factsheet
USA Cinder River-Hook Lagoon site factsheet
USA Clam Gulch site factsheet
USA Izembek-Moffet-Kinzarof Lagoons site factsheet
USA Kvichak Bay site factsheet
USA Nelson Lagoon-Mud Bay site factsheet
USA Port Heiden site factsheet
USA Port Moller-Herendeen Bay site factsheet
USA Wide Bay site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Polysticta stelleri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Pallas, 1769)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,060,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species