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Hoary-throated Spinetail Synallaxis kollari
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Justification
This species, which has a very small occupied range which is severely fragmented, and declining in extent and quality, has been uplisted to Critically Endangered because a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin predicts that its population will decline extremely rapidly over the next three generations as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Poecilurus kollari Stotz et al. (1996)

Identification
15.5 cm. Bright rufous spinetail with distinctive head pattern. Grey-brown crown. Rufous postocular stripe. Grey cheeks. White malar stripe. White throat speckled black. White belly. Voice Song consists of pairs of short notes at one-second intervals, the second note slightly higher pitched.

Distribution and population
Synallaxis kollari was, until recently, known from six specimens and a small number of observations along the rio Cotingo, rio Surumu, rio Tacutu, rio Uraricoera and the upper rio Branco in north Roraima, Brazil and adjacent Guyana (Forrester 1995). Although it is locally common, it has a highly fragmented range in patches of suitable habitat which total no more than 206 km2 (Vale et al. 2007). It was long known only from records (mostly since 1956) on the rio Tacutu within 2 km of the Brazil-Guyana border (Forrester 1995, Zimmer et al. 1997b, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999), but it has subsequently been recorded on the rio Surumu in 1998, the rio Cotingo in 2001 (Grosset and Minns 2002), the Ireng river near its confluence with the the Tacutu in 1993-1996 (Robbins et al. 2004), on the east bank of the rio Uraricoera, 45 km north-east of Boa Vista in 2001 (Grosset and Minns 2002), on islands in the rio Uraricoera (L. F. Silveira in litt. 2012), and on the rio Parime in 2004 (Vale et al. 2007). It has been extirpated from the type locality, and it is apparently absent from south of Fortaleza de São Joaquim on the rio Branco (Zimmer et al. 1997b).

Population justification
Vale et al. (2007) state that there is 206 km2 of suitable habitat, with a species population density of 60 individuals / km2. This gives a population size of c.5,000 individuals, and so it is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 83.5-83.8% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (11 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥80% over three generations.

Ecology
Most recent observations have been in seasonally flooded riverine forest with an understorey of dense thickets and vines (Forrester 1995, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). The sightings along the rio Uraricoera in 2001 were from riverine thickets that were not subject to annual flooding (Grosset and Minns 2002). Suitable habitat is probably restricted to within 0.5 km2 of the rivers (Zimmer et al. 1997b). It has been found in fairly disturbed gallery forest (L. Silveira in litt. 2007). A bird was seen entering an apparently incomplete nest in July (Grosset and Minns 2002).

Threats
The gallery forests within the species range are being rapidly converted into rice plantations (Vale et al. 2007). The rice plantations are concentrated on the margins of the rio Branco's main tributaries and rely heavily on fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides (Vale et al. 2007). Bird and fish die-offs have been reported near these plantations (Vale et al. 2007). The margins of the rio Tacutu, rio Surumu and rio Mau have been completely converted to rice plantations (Vale et al. 2007). Burning of vegetation, such as the fires that spread through Roraima in 1999 (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999), may be another major threat. Forest loss across the species's range is likely to become extremely rapid (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011).


Conservation Actions Underway
Rice producers were evicted from the San Marcos Indigenous Reserve, which is thought to confer some protection for the species (Vale et al. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess the impact of recent fires on the species. Protect known areas along the rio Tacutu. Provide support to indigenous peoples seeking to prevent habitat destruction within their reserves.

References
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Forrester, B. C. 1995. Brazil's northern frontier sites: in search of two Rio Branco endemics. Cotinga: 51-53.

Grosset, A.; Minns, J. 2002. Photospot: Hoary-throated Spinetail Poecilurus kollari. Cotinga 18: 114.

Naka, L. N.; Cohn-Haft, M.; Mallet-Rodrigues, F.; Santos, M. P. D.; Torres, M. deF. 2006. The avifauna of the Brazilian state of Roraima: bird distribution and biogeography in the Rio Branco basin. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14(3): 197-238.

Robbins, M. B.; Braun, M.J.; Finch, D.W. 2004. Avifauna of the Guyana southern Rupununi, with comparisons to other savannas of northern south America. Ornitologia Neotropical 15: 173 & 174.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Vale, M. M.; Bell, J. B.; Alves, M. A. S.; Pimm, S. L. 2007. Abundance, distribution and conservation of Rio Brance Antbird Cercomacra carbonaria and Hoary-throated Spinetail Synallaxis kollari. Bird Conservation International 17(3): 245-247.

Zimmer, K. J.; Parker, T. A., III; Isler, M. L.; Isler, P. R. 1997. Survey of a southern Amazonian avifauna: the Alta Floresta region, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Ornithological Monographs 48: 887-918.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Harding, M., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Santos, M., Silveira, L., Vale, M., Whittaker, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Synallaxis kollari. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Hoary-throated spinetail (Synallaxis kollari) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Furnariidae (Ovenbirds)
Species name author Pelzeln, 1856
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,100 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species