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Russet-bellied Spinetail Synallaxis zimmeri
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Justification
This species is Endangered because it has a very small range, in which the extent, area and quality of habitat are declining. The population is probably also very small, fragmented and declining because of the threats to its habitat (Collar et al. 1992).

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
16.5 cm. Pale spinetail with black tail. Drab grey head and nape with darker auriculars, and pale lores and throat. Interrupted white eye-ring. Olivaceous-grey upperparts. Dusky wings, broadly edged rufous-brown. Rufous wing-coverts and rump. Black tail with conspicuous rufous on outer rectrices. Rufous-cinnamon breast becoming richer rusty towards belly. Dark bill, iris and legs. Voice Song consists of two identical, snarling notes quick-quick lasting about one second, repeated every 1-2 seconds, faster when excited.

Distribution and population
Synallaxis zimmeri has a small range on the Pacific slope of the Andes in west-central Peru. There are records from Llaguén (La Libertad) and six localities in the Cordillera Negra (Ancash) (Franke and Salinas 2000). It has been described as fairly common in a 10-ha habitat patch above Chacchan in 1983, but not detected at the site in 1988, uncommon at San Damián forest in 1980 and 1985, but present in 1998 and 1999, and fairly common in Noquo forest in 1988 (B. P. Walker in litt. 1995, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999, Hunnybun 1999, Begazo et al. 2001).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A slow and continuing population decline is suspected, owing to rates of habitat loss.

Ecology
It inhabits scrub and dense undergrowth with scattered small trees, at elevations of 1,800-2,900 m. Usually encountered in pairs, birds forage for insects in moss clumps and along vines and branches. Juveniles and an active nest have been collected in May (Franke and Salinas 2000).

Threats
Dense undergrowth habitat within its range is severely threatened by cattle-grazing and clearance for farm expansion.

Conservation Actions Underway
It does not occur in any protected areas. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to identify priority areas for conservation action within its range and further define its current distribution. Assess populations at known sites. Establish at least one protected area to benefit the species.

References
Begazo, A.J., Valqui, T., Sokol, M. and Langlois, E. 2001. Notes on some birds from central and northern Peru. Cotinga 15: 81-87.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Franke, I.; Salinas, L. 2000. Notes on the distribution, behaviour and first description of the nest of Russet-bellied Spinetail Synallaxis zimmeri. Cotinga 16: 90-93.

Hunnybun, M. 1999. A birding trip to Peru.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T. & Symes, A.

Contributors
Hornbuckle, J. & Walker, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Synallaxis zimmeri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Furnariidae (Ovenbirds)
Species name author Koepcke, 1957
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 520 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species