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Maranon Spinetail Synallaxis maranonica
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Justification
This species, which has been extirpated from several areas and now has a very small and declining range, has been uplisted to Critically Endangered because a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin predicts that its population will decline extremely rapidly over the next three generations basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
15.5 cm. Plain, grey-and-rufous spinetail. Olive-brown upperparts and shortish tail. Very uniform grey underparts, with restricted white mottling on throat and faint olivaceous tinge to flanks. Similar spp. All congeners within its range have rufous on crown and black throats. Voice Song is slow-paced kiweeu keeu, sometimes with 5-10 seconds between phrases.

Distribution and population
Synallaxis maranonica occurs in dry portions of the Marañón drainage, north-west Peru (Cajamarca) and extreme south Ecuador (Zumba area of Zamora-Chinchipe) (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Begazo et al. 2001). At least formerly, it was uncommon to locally fairly common in suitable habitat within its restricted range (Ridgely and Tudor 1994). It appears to have declined south of Jaen, Cajamarca (R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt 1998, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999), but it is still locally common in some areas of disturbed forest near Tamborapa and may possibly be abundant at more pristine sites (H. Lloyd in litt. 2007).

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 85.4% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (11 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥80% over three generations.

Ecology
It inhabits the undergrowth of deciduous woodland, forest and forest edge, occasionally venturing into humid forest, regenerating secondary scrub and riparian thickets. It has been recorded at 450-1,800 m (Schulenberg et al. 2007). Birds usually forage in pairs on or near the ground, but have also been recorded foraging higher up in the trees (Ridgely and Tudor 1994,  H. Lloyd in litt. 2007).

Threats
Much of its woodland habitat has progressively deteriorated owing to widespread and long-term cultivation of land within the Marañón drainage. The spread of oil-palm plantations, cattle-ranching and logging all seriously threaten its remaining habitat, with oil extraction a potential future problem (Dinerstein et al. 1995). It does appear to tolerate some degree of habitat disturbance, however accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network, is predicted to cause extremely rapid population declines (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey for undiscovered populations and determine whether the paucity of recent records in the south of the species's range is caused by lack of observer coverage or local extinctions. Develop land management strategies and protection for forests near Tamborapa (H. Lloyd in litt. 2007). Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).

References
Begazo, A.J., Valqui, T., Sokol, M. and Langlois, E. 2001. Notes on some birds from central and northern Peru. Cotinga 15: 81-87.

Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Hornbuckle, J., Lloyd, H., Rowlett, R., Webster, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Synallaxis maranonica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Furnariidae (Ovenbirds)
Species name author Taczanowski, 1879
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,200 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species