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Araucaria Tit-spinetail Leptasthenura setaria

Justification
This species is considered Near Threatened, as it is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to the loss of its highly specialised habitats through deforestation.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
Size: 17 cm. Summary: Small, slender and body patterned with a long tail. Id: head black streaked with white; with distinctive crest. Upperparts chestnut, duskier on wings and tail; underparts ochraceous, except whitish throat, speckled dusky. Similar: Could only be confused with the sympatric Striolated Tit-Spinetail L. striolata which has a streaked mantle and no crest. Hints: Active but sometimes hard to see, often first detected by its song and calls. Voice: The song is a high pitched descending trill, various high pitched call notes also given.

Distribution and population
Leptasthenura setaria inhabits southern temperate and secondary forests of south-east Brazil (south Rio de Janeiro to north Rio Grande do Sul) and north-east Argentina (Misiones).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Trend justification
A slow to moderate population decline is suspected to be occurring, owing to the destruction of Araucaria woodlands. However, data are lacking on the magnitude of this decline.

Ecology
This species occurs in temperate and secondary forests at 750-1,900 m (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Parker et al. 1996). It is entirely dependent upon, and relatively common in, stands of Araucaria angustifolia, even occurring in commercially planted groves around buildings and in gardens (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, J. C. Chebez in litt. 1999). The overall population in commercial plantations in Argentina appears to be large (>7,000 birds), suggesting that such Araucaria plantations play an important role in the conservation of this species (Cabanne et al. 2007).

Threats
It is threatened by the destruction of Araucaria forest, which in the state of Paraná, Brazil, alone was reduced from an estimated original cover of 73,780 km2 to 15,932 km2 in 1965 as a result of clearance for pastureland and cultivation (Hueck 1978, Stattersfield et al. 1998). In Misiones, afforestation with Araucaria has resulted in the species colonising new areas, but there are fluctuations in area occupied, and Araucaria plantations are now regularly replaced with Pinus (J. C. Chebez in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
Conservation Actions Proposed
Repeat surveys of known sites to determine rates of range contraction and population trends. Ensure that remaining tracts of Araucaria woodland receive adequate protection.

References
Cabanne, G. S.; Zurita, G. A.; Seipke, S. H.; Bellocq, M. I. 2007. Range expansion, density and conservation of the Araucaria Tit-spinetail Leptasthenura setaria (Furnariidae) in Argentina: the role of auricaria Auricaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) plantations. Bird Conservation International 17(4): 341-349.

Hueck, K. 1978. Los bosques de Sudamérica; ecología, composición e importancia económica. Sociedad Alemania [sic] de Cooperacion [sic] Técnica, Eschborn, Germany.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Chebez, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Leptasthenura setaria. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Araucaria tit-spinetail (Leptasthenura setaria)

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Furnariidae (Ovenbirds)
Species name author (Temminck, 1824)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 395,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species