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White-bellied Cinclodes Cinclodes palliatus
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Justification
This species is now thought to have an extremely small population which is assumed to be in continuing decline owing to habitat destruction and degradation (Collar et al. 1992). Further surveys of suitable habitat have failed to find the species at any additional localities. It is therefore considered Critically Endangered. Urgent conservation action is required to preserve and restore remaining habitat.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note








Identification
24 cm. Very large, white-and-rufous furnariid. Pale brownish-grey head and face, with black lores and dark ear-coverts. Brownish-rufous upperparts. Blackish wings with broad, white wingbar evident, even when perched. Blackish tail with white tips to outer rectrices. White underparts. Dusky legs and bill. Voice Chattering, long trill and loud chec call.

Distribution and population
Cinclodes palliatus is rare and very local in the high Andes of Peru in Junín, immediately adjacent Lima and (at least formerly) Huancavelica. Between 1952 and 2008, the majority of records came from six sites, confined within an area of c.24 km diameter, with a specimen from the Cordillera de Huayhuash, Lima (L. Salinas per J. Barrio in litt. 2012) and a single sighting of a stray bird near Lago de Junín (Junín) in 1978 (Harris 1980, Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990). The type-specimen was collected at Montaña de Vítoc in the large massif west of La Oroya, Junín, drained by the río Vítoc. There have been no subsequent records the localities in Huancavelica where specimens were collected in the 1930s and 1940s (Harris 1980), despite detailed surveys in 2009 (J. Barrio in litt. 2012). A large survey from 2008 to 2011, throughout the distributional range indicated that a 40 km strip in the central area of the distribution is the stronghold for the species, with 75% of the bogs there inhabited by White-bellied Cinclodes (J. Barrio in litt. 2012). It is rare and local, being absent from large areas of apparently suitable habitat, and may be declining. In 2003, 28 individuals were counted at six known sites (G. Engblom in litt. 2003), and given the number of suitable bogs within its range it was suggested that the global population may potentially number as many as 200-1,000 individuals (G. Engblom in litt. 2003), but probably closer to the lower figure (J. Barrio in litt. 2009, R. E. Gibbons in litt. 2009). From 2008 to 2011, 104 bogs were searched yielding 113 individuals at 18 of these (J. Barrio in litt. 2012). Given the number of suitable bogs within its range it is now believed that the global population may number less than 300 individuals, which would include fewer than 250 mature individuals (J. Barrio in litt. 2012). Further searches of suitable habitat have failed to find any record of the species between Huancavelica and Ayacucho departments, where it was incorrectly reported (J. Barrio in litt. 2012).


Population justification
The population was estimated at between 200 and 1,000 individuals in 2003 (G. Engblom in litt. 2003). Further surveys have failed to find records of the species at additional localities, hence the population is thought to be at the lower end of this estimate or perhaps even lower (J. Barrio in litt. 2009; R. E. Gibbons in litt. 2009). Therefore, the population is best placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals. This equates to 75-374 individuals in total, rounded here to 70-400 individuals.

Trend justification
Direct habitat destruction by mining activities and degradation caused by the dumping of mining deposits in wetland areas are the main problems and are likely to continue to cause future declines for this species. Former localities in Huancavelica have suffered from mining activities, with one of the bogs completely destroyed. Increasing peat extraction and overgrazing are also affecting the known sites (J. Barrio in litt. 2012).


Ecology
It inhabits boggy terrain from 4,430 m to the snowline at c.5,000 m (G. Engblom in litt. 2003, J. Barrio in litt. 2012). It appears to have very specific habitat requirements: mineral-rich, well-watered cushion-plant (e.g. Distichia) bogs with rocky outcrops and stony slopes nearby, often below glaciers (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990). Birds are usually seen in pairs or small groups of 3-4 individuals (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990), with a maximum of 6-7 birds in a group, rarely up to 12  (J. Barrio in litt. 2012). When feeding it probes vegetation for worms, small frogs and insects. Its breeding ecology is unknown, except that the nest is placed in a crevice or under rocks (J. Barrio in litt. 2012).


Threats
Suitable habitat was previously subjected to relatively little human disturbance owing to its high altitude. However, the use of peat for mushroom-growing, private gardening and public parks in Lima has increased in the past ten years (G. Engblom in litt. 2003). Some suitable habitat is apparently being overgrazed by alpacas, llamas and sheep (J. Barrio in litt. 2009). Mining operations are also causing habitat degradation through the dumping of deposits in bogs and lakes, and through the deliberate draining of some bogs, an activity that is estimated to be affecting over 50% of suitable sites (J. Barrio in litt. 2012). In addition, wetland areas in its range are threatened by water extraction for agriculture (C. Aucca Chutas in litt. 2008). The chances of this species surviving will greatly diminish if peat extraction and habitat alteration continue. Furthermore, having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its range, this species is potentially susceptible to climate change (BirdLife International unpublished data).


Conservation Actions Underway
The species's distribution and population dynamics were studied between 2008 and 2010 (J. Barrio in litt. 2010, 2012). Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to conduct surveys to better determine its current distribution and population size, especially in the highlands north central Huancavelica (J. Barrio in litt. 2012). Assess its precise ecological requirements to determine reasons for this species's apparently restricted range and rarity. Designate reserves to provide legal protection for known areas. Monitor changes in habitat caused by increasing peat extraction, and their effects on populations (G. Engblom in litt. 2003).

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Fjeldså, J.; Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Apollo Books, Copenhagen.

Harris, M. P. 1980. Avifauna del Lago de Junín ( Departamneto de Junín) Peru. Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado" Serie A: Zoologia 27: 1-14.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Calvert, R., Isherwood, I., O'Brien, A., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Aucca Chutas, C., Barrio, J., Engblom, G., Gibbons, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cinclodes palliatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - White-bellied cinclodes (Cinclodes palliatus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Furnariidae (Ovenbirds)
Species name author (Tschudi, 1844)
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,300 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species