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Baer's Pochard Aythya baeri

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd 
Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i);D 
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1+2a(i);D1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2008 Endangered
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,640,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,710,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 150-700 medium Inferred 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 100-620 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.6 - - -
Population justification: W. Xin, C. Lei, L. Jinyu and T. Fox in litt. (2012) stated that 'we fear that the global population is now less than 1,000 individuals and could be very much lower than this', and so it is placed in the band 250-999 individuals, equating to 167-666 mature individuals, rounded here to 150-700 mature individuals.
Trend justification: An extremely rapid population decline over the last three generations is estimated from numbers recorded on wintering and breeding grounds, as well migration routes on the Hebei Coast, China (J. Hornskov in litt. 2005), and is thought to be caused by on-going hunting and habitat degradation; hence, the decline is expected to continue at this rate.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes  
Bhutan Native Extant   Yes  
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant   Yes  
India Native Extant   Yes  
Japan Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Laos Unknown Extant   Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Myanmar Native Extant   Yes  
Nepal Native Extant   Yes  
North Korea Native Extant   Yes  
Pakistan Vagrant Extant      
Philippines Vagrant Extant      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
South Korea Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant   Yes  
Thailand Native Extant   Yes  
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bangladesh Aila Beel site factsheet
Bangladesh Hail Haor site factsheet
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor site factsheet
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel site factsheet
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe site factsheet
China (mainland) Bacha Dao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Baihe-Wanbao site factsheet
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Changshou Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chi Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dashanzuizi site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains site factsheet
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Fenglin Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Hala Hai site factsheet
China (mainland) Hangzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Hasuhai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huma He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ili River basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Jingpo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Karze Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Laodengshan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Laotieshan site factsheet
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Liupan Shan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Loess Plateau in western Gansu site factsheet
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Longtan Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Maoshan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nansihu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nanweng He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nuomin-Bila He-Dayangshu site factsheet
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qingtongxia reservoir and Yellow River wetlands in Zhongning and Zhongwei site factsheet
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qixing Lazi Siberian Tiger Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Rong Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area site factsheet
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shishankou Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuifeng Reservoir and middle reaches of Yalu Jiang site factsheet
China (mainland) Songhua Hu, Baishan Hu and Hongshi Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Taihang Shan Macaque Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tailai Dongfanghong site factsheet
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Taizhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Tuanbowa Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulansuhai Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
China (mainland) Wolong Hu (Xi Paozi) site factsheet
China (mainland) Wuda Lianchi Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xunbiela He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yinchuan plain site factsheet
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yueya Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yunfeng Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve site factsheet
India Asan Barrage site factsheet
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet
India Chakrashila Complex site factsheet
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex site factsheet
India Farakka Barrage and adjoining area site factsheet
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh site factsheet
India Kaziranga National Park site factsheet
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande site factsheet
India Khangchendzonga National Park and Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
India Khijadiya Lake and Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Majuli site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
India Naya Bandh Wetland Complex site factsheet
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Orang National Park site factsheet
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sibsagar Tanks site factsheet
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park) site factsheet
India Tamaranga - Dalani - Bhairab Complex site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Myanmar Indawgyi Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings site factsheet
Myanmar Inle Lake site factsheet
Myanmar Kaladan River site factsheet
Myanmar Kyee-ni Inn site factsheet
Myanmar Moyingyi site factsheet
Myanmar Myittha Lakes site factsheet
Myanmar Taung Kan at Sedawgyi site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet
North Korea Mount Chilbo site factsheet
Philippines Candaba swamp site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Argun' river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands (including Khinganskiy Nature Reserve) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kievka and Chernaya river basins site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes (including Daursky Nature Reserve) site factsheet
South Korea Han-gang river site factsheet
South Korea Junam reservoir site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Chu'an site factsheet
Thailand Bung Boraphet site factsheet
Thailand Bung Khong Long site factsheet
Thailand Nong Bong Kai site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aythya baeri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)
Species name author (Radde, 1863)
Population size 150-700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,640,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species