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CR
Madagascar Pochard Aythya innotata

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered
Endangered D1+2 
Vulnerable

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2011 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20-49 good Estimated 2008
Population trend Stable good -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 20-49 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.7 - - -
Population justification: A total of 25 adult birds were counted at the rediscovery site in 2008, with 29 there in 2011 (L.-A. Réne de Roland in litt. 2012). The species may persist elsewhere but the numbers are likely to be tiny, with fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals.
Trend justification: The species is likely to have dramatically declined in the past. Recent surveys suggest a modest increase in the tiny population which may be aided by conservation efforts. However, the population is still extremely small and prone to stochastic events. Breeding success is very limited with no young reared in some years. Young may have trouble finding adequate food and if they do fledge the likelihood of dispersing birds surviving away from main site is very low (H. G. Young in litt. 2012).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Madagascar Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Madagascar Lake Alaotra site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Altitude 750 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified rats (Rattus spp.) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus spp.) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified tilapia fish (Tilapia spp.) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Soil erosion, sedimentation Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aythya innotata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Salvadori, 1894)
Population size 20-49 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species