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Common Pochard Aythya ferina

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 823 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 11,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.6 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,200,000-2,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.10,000 individuals on migration and <c.10,000 wintering individuals in Korea and <c.100 breeding pairs and c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Albania Native Extant       Yes
Algeria Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant       Yes
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes    
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes    
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant       Yes
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Burkina Faso Vagrant Extant        
Canada Vagrant Extant        
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Chad Vagrant Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Congo Vagrant Extant        
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant     Yes Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant        
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ghana Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iceland Native Extant Yes      
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Vagrant Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant   Yes    
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Liberia Vagrant Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant     Yes Yes
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
Niger Vagrant Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant     Yes Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Qatar Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes    
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Slovakia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Slovenia Native Extant     Yes Yes
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Sudan Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes    
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Vietnam Native Extant        
Western Sahara Vagrant Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada site factsheet
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Algeria Lac Oubeïra site factsheet
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu site factsheet
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - "Shelf" factory site factsheet
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit site factsheet
Bangladesh Aila Beel site factsheet
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor site factsheet
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river site factsheet
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel site factsheet
Belarus Asvieja site factsheet
Belarus Bielaje fish farm site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belarus Paliessie fish farm site factsheet
Belarus Sialiec site factsheet
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty site factsheet
Belgium Grensmaas site factsheet
Belgium Mechels Rivierengebied, Antwerpen site factsheet
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex site factsheet
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve site factsheet
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds site factsheet
Czech Republic Poodri site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
Denmark Guldborgsund site factsheet
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord site factsheet
Denmark Maribo lakes site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes site factsheet
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands site factsheet
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids site factsheet
France Brenne centrale site factsheet
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos site factsheet
France Iles du Haut-Rhône site factsheet
France La Dombes site factsheet
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux site factsheet
France Lac et marais du Bourget site factsheet
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Greece Lakes Volvi-Langada (or Koronia-Ag. Vasiliou) and Rentina Gorge (or Makedonika Tempi) site factsheet
Greece Mesolongi and Aetoliko lagoons, and Acheloos and Evinos estuaries site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, Lake Vistonis, and coastal lagoons (Lakes of Thrace) site factsheet
Hungary Lake Balaton site factsheet
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands site factsheet
India Patna Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak site factsheet
Iraq Lake Tharthar and Al-Dhebaeji Fields site factsheet
Iraq Samara Wetlands site factsheet
Ireland Lough Corrib site factsheet
Ireland Lough Derravaragh site factsheet
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands site factsheet
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano site factsheet
Japan Lake Biwako site factsheet
Japan Lake Hamanako site factsheet
Japan Lake Nakaumi site factsheet
Kazakhstan Amangeldy site factsheet
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lakes in the lower reaches of the Chu River site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River site factsheet
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Plinksiai state Nature Reserve and its environs site factsheet
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon site factsheet
Mongolia Airag Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khukh Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Montenegro Lake Skadar site factsheet
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Ketelmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Markermeer site factsheet
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk-Waardenburg site factsheet
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Mangla Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes) site factsheet
Pakistan Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Phoosna Wetlands Complex site factsheet
Pakistan Pugri Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Rasool Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley site factsheet
Poland Nida Rivar Valley site factsheet
Poland Przemków ponds site factsheet
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Romania Black Sea site factsheet
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Lake Taşaul site factsheet
Romania Olt valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskiye Lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Burukshunskiye limans site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area site factsheet
Russia (European) Kupy area site factsheet
Serbia Carska bara site factsheet
Serbia Labudovo Okno site factsheet
Serbia Srednje Potamišje site factsheet
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain site factsheet
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Han-gang river site factsheet
South Korea Junam reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Gallocanta lake site factsheet
Switzerland End of Lake Constance and river Rhine until Bibermühle site factsheet
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Constance site factsheet
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Ermatingen site factsheet
Switzerland Lake Neuchâtel: southern shore site factsheet
Tunisia Ichkeul site factsheet
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia site factsheet
Turkey Bafa Lake site factsheet
Turkey Beyşehir Lake site factsheet
Turkey Burdur Lake site factsheet
Turkey Büyükçekmece Lake site factsheet
Turkey Eğirdir Lake site factsheet
Turkey Hirfanlı Reservoir site factsheet
Turkey Işıklı Lake site factsheet
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta site factsheet
Turkey Marmara Lake site factsheet
Turkey Meriç Delta site factsheet
Turkey Sapanca Lake site factsheet
Turkey Seyhan Delta site factsheet
Turkey Sodalıgöl (Arın Lake) site factsheet
Turkey Uluabat Lake site factsheet
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan site factsheet
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh site factsheet
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay site factsheet
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay site factsheet
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif site factsheet
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds site factsheet
Ukraine Mishuryn Rig site factsheet
Ukraine Sasyk lake site factsheet
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system site factsheet
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes site factsheet
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni site factsheet
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / American Mink (Neovison vison) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Influenza Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Nutrient loads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aythya ferina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 11,900,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species