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Orange-bellied Antwren Terenura sicki
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Justification
This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small and severely fragmented range and population. It is known from eight sites, but habitat at several of these is rapidly disappearing (Collar et al. 1992).

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
10 cm. Small, brightly coloured antwren. Male mostly black above, with white streaking on head, nape and mantle. Whitish face and auriculars, streaked black. Black moustachial stripe. Blackish wings and tail. Faint whitish wing-bars and edgings. White underparts with black stripes on sides of breast. Female has blackish crown, streaked white. Rest of upperparts rufous. Rich orange-rufous underparts, with paler, more buffy throat. Black stripes on sides of breast. Voice Soft, uniform trill lasting 3-4 seconds, and fast, repeated call, tzí-de-de-de tzí-de-de-de.

Distribution and population
Terenura sicki has been recorded at eight localities from the south-east escarpment of the Borborema plateau in Alagoas, north along this coastal range to Pernambuco, north-east Brazil. It is fairly common in the small and fragmented forests at Murici and regularly recorded at Pedra Talhada, and more numerous at Usina Serra Grande/Engenho Coimbra (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999, S. Roda in litt. 2007), Água Azul, Mata do Estado (Roda et al. 2003, S. Roda in litt. 2007) and Frei Caneca/Pedra Dantas in 2003 (Cotinga 2003 20:13, S. Roda in litt. 2007). It was also recorded from Novo Lino in 1986.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected, owing to rates of habitat loss.

Ecology
It inhabits the upper strata of upland humid forest at 400-700 m, although there is a recent record from lowland forest at 76 m (Albano 2009). Despite occurring in forests that have suffered severe selective logging, it is not present in degraded secondary growth. It is usually seen following mixed-species flocks, even during the breeding season, but isolated pairs have been observed. The diet includes insects such as beetles and cockroaches. Breeding probably occurs from November-February. A nest has been found in the dense foliage of a middle-stratum tree, c.10-12 m above the ground.

Threats
There has been massive clearance of Atlantic forest in Alagoas and Pernambuco, largely as a result of logging and conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. Forest at Murici has been reduced from 70 km2 in the 1970s, to a mere 30 km2 of highly disturbed and fragmented habitat in 1999 (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999). The site is severely threatened by fires spreading from adjacent plantations and further logging (new roads were evident in January 1999) (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Just one pair has been encountered here in recent years, and the species is feared to be disappearing from the reserve (Albano 2009). There is significant (and largely unsurveyed) forest remaining at Usina Serra Grande (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999), but the current condition of forest at Água Azul and in Novo Lino is unknown.

Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected under Brazilian law, and occurs in Pedra Talhada Biological Reserve, where significant areas are being reforested with native trees (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Protection at this reserve is enforced by guards and apparently welcomed by local communities (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Although land at Murici remains privately-owned and vulnerable to clearance, international efforts to effect its conservation are ongoing (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Frei Caneca is a private reserve protecting 630 ha of forest (Cotinga 2003 20:13). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey Novo Lino and any other remnant patches of habitat in Alagoas and Pernambuco to ascertain the species's presence, and identify suitable areas for conservation action. Ensure the de facto protection of Murici Ecological Station, and protect Mata do Estado and Pedra Dantas (S. Roda in litt. 2007). Continue the reforestation programme and de facto protection at Pedra Talhada.

References
Albano, C. 2009. First record of the orange-bellied antwren (Terenura sicki) in the lowland Atlantic forest of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Ararajuba: Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 17(2): 150-151.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Roda, S. A.; Carlos, C. J.; Rodrigues, R. C. 2003. New and noteworthy records for some endemic and threatened birds of the Atlantic forest of north-eastern Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 123: 227-236.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Roda, S., Studer, A., Whittaker, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Terenura sicki. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Orange-bellied antwren (Terenura sicki) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Thamnophilidae (Antbirds)
Species name author Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1983
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 130 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species