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Black-hooded Antwren Formicivora erythronotos
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This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small and severely fragmented range that is likely to be declining rapidly in response to habitat loss (Collar et al. 1992). It is known from just seven sites.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at:
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Myrmotherula erythronotos Stotz et al. (1996), Myrmotherula erythronotos erythronotos Stotz et al. (1996)

11.5 cm. Distinctive, black-and-rufous antwren. Male slaty-black with rufous-chestnut back. Black wings with three narrow, whitish wing-bars. White flanks often concealed. Slender black bill. Female similar to male but slaty-black replaced by olivaceous-brown, becoming more buffy on underparts. Voice Song is three-second series of low-pitched tchóup calls. Also high-pitched tcheek calls and soft churrs.

Distribution and population
Formicivora erythronotos survives in a narrow coastal strip around the Baía da Ilha Grande in south Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although known from c.20 specimens collected in the 19th century, it was unrecorded for over 100 years until its rediscovery in 1987. It has been subsequently found at a further seven sites (Buzzetti 1998, E. Mendonça and L. P. Gonzaga in litt. 2000). The main localities are Ariró (densities of 89 pairs/km2) and Vale do Mambucaba (156 pairs/km2) (Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999b). Smaller numbers have also been recorded at Bracuí, Frade, São Gonçalo, Taquari and Barra Grande (Buzzetti 1998, Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999b, E. Mendonça and L. P. Gonzaga in litt. 2000).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
An ongoing rapid population decline is suspected to be taking place owing to rates of habitat loss.

It was rediscovered in a swampy patch of secondary forest near the forest-mangrove ecotone. Subsequent records have found the species to occur mostly in the lush understorey of modified restinga, early successional habitats such as second growth and the understorey of old second growth (Mendonça and Gonzaga 1998, Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999b), and sometimes abandoned banana plantations (E. Mendonça and L. P. Gonzaga in litt. 2000). These areas are dominated by pioneer species, including Lantana camara, Cecropia sp., Morus sp., Rubus, Vernonia sp. and grasses (Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999b). It has once successfully colonised fields two months after burning, where there was little regenerating vegetation (Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999b,  Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999a). Nests have been found in second growth from mid-August to early February, with eggs producing an average of 0.23 young (Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999a).

It cannot tolerate many of the human activities occurring within its range. Development of the narrow coastal plain for tourism and beachside housing has been extensive and threatens the small remnant patches of suitable habitat, especially at Fazenda Ariró where there are plans for a large hotel complex (Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999b, E. Mendonça and L. P. Gonzaga in litt. 2000). There is widespread clearance of Euterpe sp. palms for pasture and plantations, both of which provide unsuitable habitat for this species (Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999b). Such plantations have reduced available habitat in the Vale do Mambucaba (E. Mendonça and L. P. Gonzaga in litt. 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected under Brazilian law and occurs in the buffer-zone of the Serra da Bocaína National Park. It may occur in Tamoios Environmental Protection Area, but the limits of this reserve are unclear on the ground (Mendonça and Gonzaga 1999a). Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor populations. Designate protected areas in Mambucaba and Ariró. Ensure that the Tamoios Environmental Protection Area encompasses part of this species's range. Devise strategies for habitat management that favour this species.

Buzzetti, D. R. C. 1998. Novos registros de Formicivora erythronotos (Formicariidae), com extensão de sua distribuição ao municipio de Parati.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Mendonça, E. C.; Gonzaga, L. P. 1998. Aspectos da biologia e conservaçao do papa-formigas-de-cabeça-negra Formicivora erythronotos (Thamnophilidae). VII Congresso Brasileira de Ornitologia, resumos, pp. 102. Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia, Brasilia.

Mendonça, E. C.; Gonzaga, L. P. 1999. Nest, eggs and young of the Black-hooded Antwren, an endangered endemic species of southeastern Brazil. VI Congresso de Ornitologia Neotropical, libro de resúmenes (Fe de Erratas), pp. R.271. Sociedad de Ornitologia Neotropical, Monterrey y Saltillo, Mexico.

Mendonça, E. C.; Gonzaga, L. P. 1999. Territory use by the Black-hooded Antwren, an endangered endemic species of southeastern Brazil. VI Congresso de Ornitologia Neotropical, libro de resúmenes (Fe de Erratas), pp. R.273. Sociedad de Ornitologia Neotropical, Monterrey y Saltillo, Mexico.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Clay, R., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R.

Gonzaga, M., Mendonça, E.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Formicivora erythronotos. Downloaded from on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Black-hooded antwren (Formicivora erythronotos) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Thamnophilidae (Antbirds)
Species name author (Hartlaub, 1852)
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 130 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species