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Ash-throated Antwren Herpsilochmus parkeri
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Justification
This species is known from just two locations and is classified as Endangered because its habitat is declining steadily within this extremely small known range (Collar et al. 1992).

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
12 cm. Grey-and-black antwren. Male has black crown and ocular streak. Greyish underparts. Dark grey upperparts with dark mottling. Blackish wings with white tips to wing-coverts forming wing-bars and whitish edges to remiges. Black tail with mostly white outer feathers and large white tips on other rectrices. Female has black crown heavily spotted white and postocular streak. Ochraceous front. Buffy eyebrow. Dark buff throat. Buffy breast with white lower belly and buffy-greyish flanks. Pale grey upperparts tinged buff on back. Tail and wings much as in male. Similar spp. Male Creamy-bellied Antwren H. motacilloides is not as grey below. Voice Accelerating and slightly descending trill introduced by several well-spaced notes.

Distribution and population
Herpsilochmus parkeri was discovered in 1983, near Jesús del Monte, on an isolated mountain ridge between the ríos Mayo and Paranapura, San Martín, north Peru, where it was found to be relatively common in 1998 (C. Bushell in litt. 1998) and 1999 (Begazo et al. 2001). In July 1999, one individual was found above Afluente, near Abra Patricia, San Martín (B. P. Walker per T. S. Schulenberg in litt. 1999), the first record away from the type-locality.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 3.9-6.6% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (14 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.

Ecology
It is locally fairly common at 1,250-1,450 m (Schulenberg et al. 2007). The type-locality is a low isolated mountain ridge at 1,350 m, vegetated by a mosaic of humid montane forest and savanna-like habitat with transitional, semi-stunted forest, and edaphic stunted forest. The observation near Abra Patricia was at 1,450 m (B. P. Walker per T. S. Schulenberg in litt. 1999). The species favours the mid- and upper-levels of the tallest forest, in areas with a relatively closed canopy and many epiphytes, but is also seen regularly at the savanna-forest ecotone (C. Bushell in litt. 1998). Birds move around in pairs, often with mixed-species flocks, feeding on invertebrates. Breeding is most likely to take place from May to September or October.

Threats
Its tiny geographic range is coupled with widespread deforestation of the adjacent lowlands in the río Mayo valley. Forest clearings are gradually encroaching further up onto the mountain ridge. Coca and coffee are widely cultivated in this region. Around Afluente, remaining areas of suitable habitat are gradually being cleared for timber, agriculture, and to secure ownership of the land (J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999). Recent surveys have confirmed that habitat destruction in the region continues unabated, albeit more extensively at lower altitudes (Sánchez Vega 1999). Abra Patricia is under pressure owing to road improvements, recent immigration and population growth in the area (Sánchez Vega 1999, Hornbuckle 1999b, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
It has recently been discovered in Alto Mayo Protected Forest, San Martín Dillon and (Sánchez Vega 1999, B. P. Walker per T. S. Schulenberg in litt. 1999). However, this designation appears to have had little or no effect on the rate of deforestation within its boundaries (Sánchez Vega 1999).Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to elucidate the species's status near Abra Patricia. Census areas adjacent to the mountain ridge near Jesús de Monte to estimate the population and improve knowledge of the species's distribution (Begazo et al. 2001). Create a reserve on this isolated mountain ridge. Enforce the protection of habitat in Alto Mayo Protected Forest, and ensure that high-altitude forest is included within its boundary (Sánchez Vega 1999, Hornbuckle 1999b, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999). Several proposals are set out in Angulo et al. (2008).

References
Angulo, F., Palomino, W., Arnal, H., Aucca, C. y Uchofen, O. 2008. Corredor de Conservación de Aves Marañón - Alto Mayo: Análisis de Distribución de Aves de Alta Prioridad de Conservación e Identificación de Propuestas de Áreas para su Conservación. Asociación Ecosistemas Andinos – American Bird Conservancy, Lima, Perú.

Begazo, A.J., Valqui, T., Sokol, M. and Langlois, E. 2001. Notes on some birds from central and northern Peru. Cotinga 15: 81-87.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Hornbuckle, J. 1999. The birds of Abra Patricia and the upper río Mayo, San Martín, north Peru. Cotinga 12: 11-28.

Sánchez Vega, I. and Dillon, M.O. 2000. Un nueva especie de Mikania (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae) de Piura, Perú. Arnaldoa 7(1-2): 1-12.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Bushell, C., Hornbuckle, J., Schulenberg, T., Walker, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Herpsilochmus parkeri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Thamnophilidae (Antbirds)
Species name author Davis & O'Neill, 1986
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 15 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species