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Salvadori's Antwren Myrmotherula minor

Justification
This species has a small range and population occurring at a few isolated locations. Virtually no habitat remains outside of the reserves in which it occurs, and most of these are not effectively protected. Fragmentation and continuing habitat loss are so extensive within its range that the suspected rapid population decline qualifies it as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
9 cm. Small, grey, black and white antwren. Male grey, with black bib extending to mid-chest. Undertail-coverts barred black and white, wings black with white-tipped coverts. Tail with narrow black subterminal band, rectrices fringed white. Female has ashy crown grading into brownish-olive back, dusky wings with olivaceous-buff tipped coverts. Rectrices fringed russet, olivaceous-buff underparts and whitish on throat. Similar spp. No other Myrmotherula has barred undertail-coverts. Male White-flanked Antwren M. axillaris luctuosa has silvery-grey flanks and more extensive black bib, female has contrastingly paler flanks. Both sexes of Band-tailed Antwren M. urosticta have broad, white tail tip. Voice Distinctive, two or three, multi-syllabic whistles.

Distribution and population
Myrmotherula minor occurs in south-east Brazil, with most recent records in the Serra da Bocaina and Serra do Mar in south Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. There are also records from Minas Gerais (one site), Espírito Santo and north-east Santa Catarina (one old specimen and one recent record [Naka et al. 2000]), with possible records from Bahia. Although it has been listed for north-east Peru, until there is some undisputed evidence of its occurrence outside the Atlantic forest region, M. minor must be considered restricted to south-east Brazil. Its current range is highly fragmented and it is now rare, with recent records from only a small number of localities (Whitney and Pacheco 1995).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with rates of habitat loss within its range.

Ecology
It inhabits the interior of undisturbed and old second growth forest in humid regions where trees are festooned with mosses, bromeliads and other epiphytic growth. Second growth is only tolerated if adjacent to essentially mature forest. It is almost always found near water, either in swampy forest, or close to fast-flowing streams (Whitney and Pacheco 1995). Individuals are rarely observed away from mixed-species flocks (Whitney and Pacheco 1997, Aleixo and Galetti 1997, J. F. Pacheco in litt. 1999, L. F. Silveira in litt. 1999) and forage from ground-level to 12 m, although generally in the range 2-8 m (Whitney and Pacheco 1997). Three pairs in lowland forest at the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station had home ranges of 2.2 ha, 3 ha and 5.8 ha (Develey 1997). Most recent records have been below 300 m (Whitney and Pacheco 1995), although it regularly occurs at 800 m in the Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve (E. O. Willis and Y. Oniki in litt. 1999).

Threats
Virtually all lowland Atlantic forest outside protected areas has been deforested within its historical range, and even some of the protected areas in which it occurs are not secure (Whitney and Pacheco 1995). There is almost no suitable habitat remaining in Espírito Santo below 700 m, and the lowlands and foothills of south Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo have become easily accessible to humans since the 1970s, with most of the forest below the base of the slopes cleared or heavily degraded (Whitney and Pacheco 1995).

Conservation Actions Underway
In Rio de Janeiro, it occurs in Poço das Antas and Tinguá Biological Reserves. The unprotected Fazenda União (J. F. Pacheco in litt. 1999) is the only site where it occurs with Band-tailed Antwren M. urosticta and Unicolored Antwren M. unicolor. In São Paulo, most remaining forest in Serra da Bocaina National Park is at inappropriate altitudes, and Serra do Mar State Park is not adequately protected (Whitney and Pacheco 1995). It also occurs in Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station (Develey 1997, L. F. Silveira in litt. 1999) and Jurupará State Park (Develey 1997), São Paulo, and Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo (E. O. Willis and Y. Oniki in litt. 1999).Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to assess the species's total population size. Monitor any decline in or degradation of its remaining habitat. Protect Fazenda União. Ensure the de facto protection of reserves, especially Serra da Bocaina and Serra do Mar. Promote environmental awareness in communities near reserves (Whitney and Pacheco 1995).

References
Aleixo, A.; Galetti, M. 1997. The conservation of the avifauna in a lowland Atlantic forest in south-east Brazil. Bird Conservation International 7: 235-261.

Develey, P. F. 1997. Ecologia de bandos mistos de aves de Mata Atlântica na Estaçao Ecológica Juréia-Itatins.

Naka, L. N.; Barnett, J. M.; Kirwan, G. M.; Tobias, J. A.; de Azevedo, A. G. 2000. New and noteworthy bird records from Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 120: 237-250.

Whitney, B. M.; Pacheco, J. F. 1995. Distribution and conservation status of four Myrmotherula antwrens (Formicariidae) in the Atlantic Forest or Brazil. Bird Conservation International 5(2/3): 421-439.

Whitney, B. M.; Pacheco, J. F. 1997. Behavior, vocalizations, and relationships of some Myrmotherula Antwrens (Thamnophilidae) in eastern Brazil, with comments on the "plain-winged" group. Ornithological Monographs 48: 809-819.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Clay, R., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R.

Contributors
De Luca, A., Develey, P., Oniki, Y., Pacheco, J., Silveira, L., Willis, E.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Myrmotherula minor. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Salvadori's antwren (Myrmotherula minor) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Thamnophilidae (Antbirds)
Species name author Salvadori, 1864
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species