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White-streaked Antvireo Dysithamnus leucostictus

Justification

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and its dependence on primary forest and susceptibility to fragmentation, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Thamnomanes leucostictus Stotz et al. (1996)

Identification
12-13 cm. Small, short-tailed, dimorphic antbird. Male dark grey, blackest on breast, with white tips and edges to wing-coverts. Female reddish brown above, with grey underparts streaked white. No streaking on lower belly, Reddish brown vent. Similar spp. The male could be mistaken for a male Plain Antvireo D. mentalis, but is larger and uniformly dark above and below. Male Slaty Antwren Myrmotherula schisticolor is also smaller. Voice Song is a loud, countable series of whistled notes, falling in pitch.

Distribution and population
Dysithamnus leucostictus has two separate ranges in north-west South America, and is generally uncommon (del Hoyo et al. 2003). Subspecies tucuyensis is endemic to northern Venezuela, occurring in the coastal mountains from Falcón and Lara to Monagas. This taxon is present in Henri Pittier National Park; it is most regularly found near Rancho Grande Biological Station in Aragua, and is now rare near Caripe (del Hoyo et al. 2003, Hilty 2003). The nominate subspecies leucostictus is found in the east Andes, ranging from Meta in central Colombia, southwards through east Ecuador to northern Amazonas and Cajamarca in extreme north Peru (del Hoyo et al. 2003).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 29.6-30.8% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (14 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over three generations.

Ecology
This is an understorey species of lowland evergreen forest, usually below 600 m. It forages in pairs or alone, usually within 2 m of the ground in dense tangles of vegetation. The diet of this species is not well known, but it is likely to consist of insects, such as katydids and stick-insects, and other arthropods. It is sometimes associated with mixed species flocks. It is thought likely to breed between August and December, and the only published record of a nest comes from August (del Hoyo et al. 2003).

Threats

The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It appears to be restricted to little-disturbed primary forest, and as such is likely to be particularly susceptible to fragmentation and edge effects (del Hoyo et al. 2003, A. Lees in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).

References
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2003. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 8: Broadbills to Tapaculos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. A&C Black, London.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Symes, A.

Contributors
Lees, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Dysithamnus leucostictus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Thamnophilidae (Antbirds)
Species name author Sclater, 1858
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 44,900 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species