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Recurve-billed Bushbird Clytoctantes alixii
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Justification
This species has been recently rediscovered in both Venezuela and Colombia, following 40 years without any records. Its range and population are poorly known, but presumed to be very small (Collar et al. 1992). Habitat loss is continuing throughout its range, and has been rapid over the last five years in an area that was probably a stronghold. Consequently its range and population are likely to be declining. The species is therefore classified as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Synonym(s)
Clytoctantes alixi Stotz et al. (1996), Clytoctantes alixi alixi Stotz et al. (1996)

Identification
16.5 cm. Chunky, short-tailed antbird with bizarrely large, recurved bill. Very large, pale horn-bill laterally compressed with sharp-ridged culmen. Wedge-shaped lower mandible upturned. Large, strong feet and legs, with long, straight hindclaw. Concealed white interscapular patch. Male mainly slaty-grey, black lores, throat, and upper breast. Faintly dotted white wing-coverts. Female rufescent-brown, rufous-chestnut forehead, sides of head and sides of body. Dusky tail and wings. Voice A loud, mid-range whistling peeeuw peeeuw peeuw-pweet-pweet-pweet

Distribution and population
Clytoctantes alixii is known only from extreme north-west Venezuela and north Colombia. Known historical localities are the Sierra de Perijá, Zulia, Venezuela, and in Colombia, the foothills of the Magdalena valley: in Santander and Cesar (north-east); the Serranía de San Lucas, Bolívar (north-west); Caldas (south-west); and four foothill sites north of the Andes in Antioquia and Córdoba. It was known from specimens taken between the 19th century and the 1950s, but following sightings in 1965 in the Serranía de Abibe there were no further reports until its rediscovery in Venezuela in 2004. The security risk posed by paramilitary groups and narcotics traffickers, together with the species's inconspicuousness and the lack of knowledge of its voice hindered rediscovery of a species which, judging by the large series of museum specimens and the scatter of reports from a fairly wide area, was once fairly common. It was finally refound in April 2004 in the Sierra de Perijá, Venezuela (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2006). Shortly afterwards, in 2005 it was rediscovered in Colombia, at Ocaña, Norte de Santander (O. Laverde in litt. 2006). Here it appeared to be fairly common (6-7 pairs heard along a 2-km stretch of road) between 1,600 m and 1,750 m, much higher than previous records (O. Laverde in litt. 2006). In 2007 it was found above San Vicente de Chucuri in the Serranía de los Yariguíes, Santander (D. Willis in litt. 2007) and in Antiquoia (R. Clay in litt. 2007, Colorado 2008). It may well turn out to be more common and widespread than previously thought, especially as it appears to favour areas of secondary growth (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2011).

Population justification
Based on the smalll number of birds recorded at the two known locations, e.g. with 6-7 pairs heard along a 2 km stretch of road at Ocaña (O. Laverde in litt. 2006), the total is probably best placed precautionarily in the band 250-999 individuals. This equates to 167-666 mature individuals, rounded here to 150-700 mature individuals. Further surveys may show that the population is larger than this though.

Trend justification
A slow and ongoing population decline is suspected, owing to habitat loss, although if the species is proven to favour secondary growth, suitable habitat may actually be increasing in areas such as the Sierra de Perijá (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2011).

Ecology
It inhabits lowland and foothill forests (185-1,750 m), favouring dense undergrowth, thickets, forest borders and young secondary growth. In Venezuela it has been found in the dense understorey of secondary habitats such as old swidden plots (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2007) and seems to favour steep slopes with high water runoff in decaying secondary woodland (D. Ascanio in litt. 2007). The observations at Ocaña were in mature secondary growth with a strong bamboo component between 1,600 m and 1,750 m (O. Laverde in litt. 2006), but in the Serranía de los Yariguíes it was observed in an overgrown boulder-strewn gulley with no bamboo (D. Willis in litt. 2007). In Antioquia, it has been found at 300-800m in second growth with a dense understorey (Colorado 2008). In the west, breeding occurs during April-May. It feeds on insects obtained by pecking open hollow stems and branches (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2006, D. Ascanio in litt. 2007).

Threats
The lower Magdalena valley had largely been converted to agricultural land as early as the 18th century, and the middle portions were rapidly opened up, colonised, logged and farmed during the 1960s and 1970s, although regeneration is beginning following land abandonment in some foothill areas (Stiles et al. 1999). Similarly, the lower Cauca valley and foothill areas at the northern end of the West and Central Andes have long been deforested, although some extensive forests survive (Forero 1989). This includes Paramillo National Park, where human settlement and activity pre-dates creation of the park and continues to threaten the forest (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). The species had been not uncommon in the vast, pristine forest of the Serranía de San Lucas. However, a gold-rush began in 1996, and most of the eastern slopes have since been settled, logged and converted to agriculture and coca production (A. Cuervo in litt. 1999, L. Dávalos in litt. 1999, Donegan and Salaman 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). In the Sierra de Perijá there has been severe deforestation below 2,000 m for cattle-ranching and narcotics cultivation (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 1995, 1997, 2000). However, if the species does in fact favour secondary growth then increased farming of middle elevations in the Sierra de Perijá, although detrimental to primary forest specialists, may in fact be creating more suitable habitat for the species (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2007). For the Antioquia population, the major short-term threat is the proposed construction of the Pescadero-Ituango hydroelectric dam on the Cauca river. If approved, this project would flood most of the habitat in this area (Colorado 2008). It is considered nationally Endangered in Colombia (Renjifo et al. 2002) and Venezuela (Sharpe 2008).


Conservation Actions Underway
Several specimen localities are now within Paramillo (Antioquia and Córdoba) and Perijá (Zulia) National Parks. It occurs in the recently purchased ProAves Recurve-billed Bushbird Reserve at Agua de la Virgen and by the Cerulean Warbler Reserve in the Serranía de los Yariguíes. Conservation Actions Proposed
Search for it using tapes of the song and calls, as well as mist-nets, targeting any areas of extensive, well-developed secondary growth at 150-1,750m, especially where bamboo abounds. Assess its status in Paramillo and Perijá (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995) National Parks, particularly the relatively inaccessible and unexplored southern part of the latter. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Colorado, G. J. 2008. Rediscovery of the Recurve-billed Bushbird for the Cordillera Central of Colombia. Ornitologia Neotropical 19(3): 467-471.

Donegan, T.; Salaman, P. 1999. Colombian EBA Project '99: rapid biodiversity assessments and conservation evaluations in the Colombian Andes.

Forero, E. 1989. Colombia. In: Campbell, D.G.; Hammond, H.D. (ed.), Floristic inventory of tropical countries, pp. 355-361. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Rodríguez, J. P.; Rojas-Suárez, F. 1995. Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana. Provita, Caracas.

Sharpe, C.J. 2008. Aves. In: Rodríguez, J.P. & Rojas-Suárez, F. (ed.), Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana, 3rd edition, pp. 122-157. Provita & Shell Venezuela, S.A.,, Caracas, Venezuela.

Stiles, F. G.; Rosselli, L.; Bohórquez, C. I. 1999. New and noteworthy records of birds from the middle Magdalena valley of Colombia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 113-129.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Ascanio, D., Clay, R., Cuervo, A., Dávalos, L., Isler, M., Isler, P., Laverde, O., Salaman, P., Sharpe, C J, Willis, D.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Clytoctantes alixii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Recurve-billed bushbird (Clytoctantes alixii)

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Thamnophilidae (Antbirds)
Species name author Elliot, 1870
Population size 150-700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 170 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species