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LC
Garganey Spatula querquedula

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 16,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 17,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.5 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,600,000-2,800,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and <c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Australia Vagrant Extant        
Austria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes    
Barbados Vagrant Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant Yes      
Benin Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant       Yes
Botswana Vagrant Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Vagrant Extant        
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Christmas Island (to Australia) Vagrant Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant     Yes  
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant        
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant       Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant        
Maldives Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Marshall Islands Vagrant Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mauritius Vagrant Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
Niger Native Extant   Yes    
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Papua New Guinea Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant   Yes    
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Native Extant Yes      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Réunion (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Rwanda Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Seychelles Native Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant   Yes    
Sudan Native Extant        
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant     Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Vagrant Extant        
Togo Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes      
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
USA Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant     Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest site factsheet
Austria Neusiedler See site factsheet
Bangladesh Aila Beel site factsheet
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor site factsheet
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river site factsheet
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam site factsheet
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel site factsheet
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna site factsheet
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belarus Sož floodplain site factsheet
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty site factsheet
Cameroon Waza National Park site factsheet
Chad Lake Chad site factsheet
Chad Lake Fitri site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
India Carambolim Wetlands site factsheet
India Kole Wetland site factsheet
India Kolleru Lake Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes site factsheet
India Patna Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Suchindram Therur, Vembanoor site factsheet
India Vembanad Lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Israel Northern Arava valley site factsheet
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains site factsheet
Italy Stagnone di Marsala and Trapani saltpans site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake site factsheet
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo site factsheet
Mali Lac Faguibine site factsheet
Mali Lac Horo site factsheet
Mali Mare de Gossi site factsheet
Mali Séri site factsheet
Mali Timisobo - Képagou site factsheet
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli site factsheet
Mauritania Gâat Mahmoûdé site factsheet
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg site factsheet
Mauritania Lac de Mâl site factsheet
Mauritania Rkîz site factsheet
Mauritania Tâmourt de Chlim site factsheet
Mauritania Tâmourt en Na'âj site factsheet
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands site factsheet
Philippines Candaba swamp site factsheet
Poland Swidwie lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area site factsheet
Russia (European) Kupy area site factsheet
Senegal Djoudj wetlands site factsheet
Senegal Ndiaël basin (including the 'Trois Marigots') site factsheet
Sri Lanka Mundel Lake site factsheet
Sri Lanka Periyakadawela site factsheet
Sri Lanka Wirawila Tank site factsheet
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta site factsheet
Ukraine Mishuryn Rig site factsheet
Ukraine Oril' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest site factsheet
Ukraine Tsybul'kivs'ki lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake site factsheet
Vietnam Tram Chim site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable passage
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable passage
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable passage
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / American Mink (Neovison vison) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Influenza Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / West Nile Virus (Flaviviridae) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Spatula querquedula. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 16,900,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species