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Black-capped Piprites Piprites pileata

Justification
This species is classified as Vulnerable because the extent of forest loss indicates that its apparently small population is declining.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
Gender agreement of species name follows David and Gosselin (2002b).

Synonym(s)
Piprites pileatus Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Piprites pileatus Stotz et al. (1996), Piprites pileatus BirdLife International (2000), Piprites pileatus BirdLife International (2004), Piprites pileatus Collar et al. (1994), Piprites pileatus Collar and Andrew (1988)

Identification
12 cm. Buffy-rufous and black manakin. Black cap and nape contrasting with buffy-rufous upperparts and tail. Black central rectrices. Buff face and underparts. Wings mostly black with yellowish fringes and patch at base of primaries. Orange-yellow legs and yellower bill. Female slightly duller with olive back. Voice Nasal chiéh calls. Song a longer and faster, querulous series.

Distribution and population
Piprites pileata is rare and very sparsely distributed in south-east Brazil and Argentina. In Brazil it has been found in Minas Gerais (Itatiaia massif and adjacent areas), Rio de Janeiro (recently only from Itatiaia except for a record from Visconde de Mauá in 1988), São Paulo (Serra da Bocaina and Campos do Jordão), Paraná (recently from Fazenda Santa Rita [Anjos et al. 1997]), Santa Catarina (recently in the São Joaquim area) and Rio Grande do Sul (Fazenda das Amoreiras and Aparados da Serra). In Argentina, there is a specimen collected at Tobuna, Misiones, in 1959 and records since 2006 from the Yabotí Biosphere Reserve, Misiones (Maders et al. 2007, Bodrati et al. 2009, 2010).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
The species's population is suspected be in decline at a moderate rate, in line with on-going rates of habitat loss.

Ecology
It largely inhabits the canopy of montane Atlantic forest in the Araucaria angustifolia and Podocarpus lamberti domain. Observations in Itatiaia National Park suggest that it may be an altitudinal migrant (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). If true, it may require continuous tracts of forest within its altitudinal range of 900-2,000 m in Brazil. In Argentina, it has been found from 500 to 600 m, and it does not migrate; individuals were observed year-round at the same sites in Caa Yari Provincial Park and Guaraní Multiple Use Reserve (Bodrati et al. 2009). All recent records in Argentina (seven territories) are from a cluster of sites along the Arroyo Paraíso in the Yabotí Biosphere Reserve (Maders et al. 2007, Bodrati et al. 2009, 2010). While Ocotea pulchella is present at all sites and frequented by this manakin, Araucaria angustifolia is present at only two of the sites (Bodrati et al. 2009). Pairs or single birds forage in the canopy and subcanopy of dense forest, sometimes accompanying mixed-species flocks when these pass through their territories (Bodrati et al. 2009). The diet consists of arthropods, especially larvae (Bodrati et al. 2009), (gleaned or hover-gleaned) and fruit. Pairs were seen displaying from September to November, and a nest was under construction in October (Cockle et al. 2008, Bodrati et al. 2009).

Threats
Araucaria forests have been much reduced in extent. In Paraná, the original extent has been estimated at 73,780 km2 but, by 1965, only 15,932 km2 remained (Hueck 1978). However, it does not appear to be a true Araucaria specialist, and population declines in the north of its range may be mitigated by forests within its altitudinal range having suffered considerably less destruction than adjacent lowlands. The population in Argentina is very small and localized in a specific habitat (Ocotea pulchella forest), which is not subject to any specific protection and thus vulnerable to forest disturbance including selective logging, forest clearing for agriculture, and accidental forest fires (Bodrati et al. 2009).


Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected in Brazil and occurs in Itatiaia, Serra da Bocaina and Aparados da Serra National Parks and Campos do Jordão State Park. In Argentina it is only known to occur in Caa Yarí Provincial Park and the adjacent Guaraní Multiple Use Reserve and Papel Misionero Natural Cultural Reserve, all in the Yabotí Biosphere Reserve (Bodrati et al. 2009, 2010). Proyecto Selva de Pino Paraná (Fundacion de Historia Natural Felix de Azara) and Ministry of Ecology of Misiones are searching for additional sites in Misiones (Bodrati et al. 2009), and raising awareness about the importance of Ocotea pulchella forest through talks for park rangers and activities at rural schools (A. Bodrati and K. Cockle in litt. 2012). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey historical localities (especially in Paraná) and other areas of suitable habitat (sites with Ocotea pulchella along rivers in Misiones, especially within Yabotí Biosphere Reserve, and mixed forest with Ocotea pulchella in Iguazú National Park, Paraná [Bodrati et al. 2009, 2010]), with the aid of tape-playback. Determine precise habitat requirements and whether the species migrates altitudinally in Brazil. Ensure complete protection of the species's habitat (Ocotea pulchella forest) in Guaraní Multiple Use Reserve and adjacent Papel Misionero and other lots (Bodrati et al. 2009, 2010).

References
Anjos, L. Dos; Schuchmann, K. L.; Berndt, R. 1997. Avifaunal composition, species richness, and status in the Tibagi river basin, Parana state, southern Brazil. Ornitologia Neotropical 8(1): 145-173.

Bodrati A.; Lammertink M.; Segovia J.M. 2010. El Bailarín Castaño (Piprites pileata) está en la Reserva Natural Cultural Papel Misionero, Provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Nuestras Aves 54: 76-78.

Bodrati, A.; Maders, C.; Di Santo, G.; Cockle K.; Areta, J. I.; Segovia, J. M. 2009. Distribución, hábitat, e historia natural del Bailarín Castaño Piprites pileata, una especie Críticamente Amenazada en Argentina. Cotinga: 95-100.

Canevari, M. 1991. Nueva guia de las aves Argentinas. Fundación Acindar, Buenos Aires.

Cockle, K.; Maders, C.; Di Santo, G.; Bodrati, A. 2008. The Black-capped Piprites Piprites pileata builds a spherical moss nest. Cotinga: 166-168.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Hueck, K. 1978. Los bosques de Sudamérica; ecología, composición e importancia económica. Sociedad Alemania [sic] de Cooperacion [sic] Técnica, Eschborn, Germany.

Maders, C.; Fariña, N.; Bodrati, A. 2007. Redescubrimiento del Bailarín Castaño (Piprites pileata) en Argentina. Ornitologia Neotropical 18: 127-131.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Mazar Barnett, J., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Bodrati, A., Cockle, K., De Luca, A., Whittaker, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Piprites pileata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Black-capped piprites (Piprites pileata) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Pipridae (Manakins)
Species name author (Temminck, 1822)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 44,300 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species