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Northern Pintail Anas acuta

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 28,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 23,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 0
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.8 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to number 5,300,000-5,400,000 individuals.
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-77.3% decline over 40 years, equating to a -31% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes  
Albania Native Extant   Yes  
Algeria Native Extant      
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant   Yes  
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Australia Vagrant Extant      
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes  
Bahamas Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes  
Barbados Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant     Yes
Belgium Native Extant      
Belize Native Extant   Yes  
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant   Yes  
Botswana Vagrant Extant      
Brazil Vagrant Extant      
Brunei Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant     Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Colombia Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Cook Islands Vagrant Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes  
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant      
Croatia Native Extant      
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Dominica Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
El Salvador Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant     Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes    
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
French Polynesia Vagrant Extant      
Gabon Vagrant Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes    
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guatemala Native Extant      
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Guyana Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant     Yes
Iceland Native Extant      
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes
Ireland Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant   Yes Yes
Jamaica Vagrant Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kiribati Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant     Yes
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Malawi Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Maldives Vagrant Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes  
Martinique (to France) Native Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant      
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
Nicaragua Native Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes Yes
Panama Native Extant      
Papua New Guinea Vagrant Extant      
Philippines Native Extant   Yes  
Poland Native Extant     Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes  
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes  
Romania Native Extant     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes
Rwanda Native Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes  
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant      
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant      
St Lucia Native Extant      
St Martin (to France) Vagrant Extant   Yes  
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant     Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Suriname Native Extant      
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes    
Sweden Native Extant     Yes
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Togo Native Extant      
Tonga Vagrant Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes  
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant      
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
USA Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Venezuela Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes  
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Algeria Barrage de la Cheffia site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu site factsheet
Bangladesh Aila Beel site factsheet
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor site factsheet
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river site factsheet
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam site factsheet
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel site factsheet
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde site factsheet
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart site factsheet
Cameroon Lake Maga site factsheet
Canada Big Piskwanish Point site factsheet
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary) site factsheet
Canada Queen Maud Gulf site factsheet
Chad Lake Chad site factsheet
Chad Lake Fitri site factsheet
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor) site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
Denmark Fanø site factsheet
Denmark Fiilsø site factsheet
Denmark Rømø site factsheet
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø site factsheet
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea) site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Finland Oulu region wetlands site factsheet
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands site factsheet
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc site factsheet
France Baie de Vilaine site factsheet
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin site factsheet
France Basses Vallées Angevines site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Cap Gris-nez site factsheet
France Domaine d'Orx site factsheet
France Estuaire de la Loire site factsheet
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine site factsheet
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie site factsheet
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf site factsheet
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant site factsheet
France La Dombes site factsheet
France Lac de Grand-Lieu site factsheet
France Marais de Brière site factsheet
France Marais de Mazerolles-Petit Mars site factsheet
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne site factsheet
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise site factsheet
France Vallée de l'Aisne site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
India Kanjli Lake site factsheet
India Krishnarajasagar Reservoir site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
India Patna Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Saman Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dorudsan dam site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Japan Abukumagawa river site factsheet
Japan Izunuma and nearby lakes site factsheet
Japan Lake Hyoko site factsheet
Japan Lake Komukeko and Lake Shibunotsunaiko site factsheet
Japan Mawarizeki and Sunazawa reservoir site factsheet
Japan Mogamigawa estuary site factsheet
Japan Otomonuma reservoir site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley site factsheet
Latvia Irbe strait site factsheet
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds site factsheet
Latvia Svete lower reaches site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon site factsheet
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo site factsheet
Mali Lac Faguibine site factsheet
Mali Lac Horo site factsheet
Mali Séri site factsheet
Mauritania Diawling National Park site factsheet
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg site factsheet
Mauritania Lac de Mâl site factsheet
Mauritania Rkîz site factsheet
Mauritania Tâmourt en Na'âj site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake site factsheet
Netherlands Balgzand site factsheet
Netherlands Grevelingen site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Volkerak site factsheet
Netherlands Lauwersmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen site factsheet
Netherlands Schiermonnikoog site factsheet
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat site factsheet
Netherlands Wadden Sea site factsheet
Netherlands Westerschelde and Saeftinghe site factsheet
Niger Chiya wetland site factsheet
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands site factsheet
Pakistan Pugri Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Rasool Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Philippines Candaba swamp site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Lower Odra river valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Forty islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kava valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Korfa bay (northern part) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Semyachik lagoon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Zhupanovskiy lagoon site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) River Chernaya site factsheet
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra site factsheet
Russia (European) Torna - Shoina watershed site factsheet
Senegal Djoudj wetlands site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Upo swamp site factsheet
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz site factsheet
Sweden Lake Hornborgasjön site factsheet
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom Burry Inlet site factsheet
United Kingdom Dee Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister site factsheet
United Kingdom Martin Mere site factsheet
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay site factsheet
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom Nene Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Ouse Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Severn Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes site factsheet
USA Catahoula, Dewey Wills, and Three Rivers site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anas acuta. Downloaded from on 16/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 28,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species