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Golden-crowned Manakin Lepidothrix vilasboasi

Justification
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it is presumed to have a small population, which is believed to be declining owing to increased logging resulting from a rapidly increasing human population.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Pipra vilasboasi Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Pipra vilasboasi Stotz et al. (1996), Pipra vilasboasi Collar et al. (1994), Pipra vilasboasi BirdLife International (2000), Pipra vilasboasi BirdLife International (2005), Pipra vilasboasi Collar and Andrew (1988), Pipra vilasboasi BirdLife International (2004)

Identification
8.5 cm. Small, green-and-yellow manakin. Male predominantly bright grass-green, with yellow belly and undertail-coverts, white rump and uppertail-coverts, whitish iris, and glittering golden crown and nape. Pale pinkish legs and pale bluish bill. Female similar but crown has slight bluish tinge and rump area is green. Similar spp. Male separable from similar Snow-capped Manakin P. nattereri by crown and nape colour but female is probably indistinguishable in field except on range. Voice Male call apparently similar to closely related species, a burry prreee sometimes given in series.

Distribution and population
Lepidothrix vilasboasi was known until recently only from the type-locality at the headwaters of the rio Cururu, a right-bank tributary of the rio Tapajós, in the Serra do Cachimbo, south-west Pará, Brazil, where five specimens were taken in 1957. In 2002, a male was observed and mist-netted on the west bank of the rio Jamanxim, near Novo Progresso, c.200 km north-east of the type-locality (Olmos and Pacheco 2003), but this site has now been logged (A. Lees in litt. 2007, 2011). In 2006, two exploded leks were found in selectively logged forest 20 km from the 2002 site, and it has now also been found at two further localities on the far side of the rio Jamanxim (A. Lees in litt. 2007, 2011). It has been suggested that the species ranges between the rios Tapajós and Jamanxim, and that the southern limit of its range lies along the north edge of the Serra do Cachimbo (Olmos and Pacheco 2003), but surveys in the Serra do Cachimbo have so far only found Snow-capped Manakin L. nattereri (F. Olmos in litt. 2007). There is no evidence to suggest that it occurs sympatrically with Opal-crowned Manakin L. iris or L. nattereri (M. Cohn-Haft in litt. 1999, Olmos and Pacheco 2003).

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be undergoing a moderate decline in line with rates of forest clearance for logging and cattle-ranching in its range.

Ecology
The type-series was collected in primary terra firme forest. The first specimen was seen and collected 6 m up in a thin sapling at the edge of a stream in dense, tall forest. Stomach contents of the specimens contained fruit and insects. The male in 2002 was captured in terra firme forest adjoining a dirt road (Olmos and Pacheco 2003), and the lekking birds in 2006 were in forest which had been selectively logged around five years previously (A. Lees in litt. 2007, 2011). It may be able to survive in small fragments of habitat as the closely related L. nattereri occurs in well-preserved forest fragments as small as 50 ha.

Threats
The extent of deforestation in the vicinity of the type-locality remains unknown, but the region is being developed for cattle-ranching (Ridgely and Tudor 1994). Forest at the 2002 locality has already been destroyed and clearance is increasing rapidly in response to the increasing demand for cattle pasture from colonists (Olmos and Pacheco 2003), with the Novo Progresso area currently experiencing one of the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon (F. Olmos in litt. 2007). Current plans to pave the BR 163 Cuiabá-Santarém road will bring even greater habitat destruction, opening up soya markets in the Mato Grosso for rapid transfer to Santarém, unless strong government action is taken (Olmos and Pacheco 2003, A. Lees in litt. 2007, 2011). However, an increase in selective logging is perhaps a more likely consequence, which would pose a lesser threat given that the species is likely to be tolerant of moderate levels of habitat disturbance and degradation (A. Lees in litt. 2007, 2011). Part of the theoretical range is included in Jamanxim National Forest, which is supposed to be logged in a sustainable way, but unsustainable clearance is also occurring here (F. Olmos in litt. 2007). An analysis of the impact of future infrastructure development on Amazonian birds predicts that loss of forest will cause Lepidothrix vilasboasi to become Critically Endangered by 2020 (Vale et al. 2009).


Conservation Actions Underway
The species occurs in several large protected areas (A. Lees in litt. 2007, 2011). The type-locality is within an area of 400,000 ha at Serra do Cachimbo, belonging to the Brazilian air force, which is one of the best-conserved areas in southern Pará (Olmos and Pacheco 2003). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to establish the species's status, especially within the Mundurucânia Forest Reserve. Carry out further surveys to assess the limits of its distribution. Clarify the extent of forest destruction at, and near, the type-locality. Improve the management of Jamanxim National Forest. Increase the extent of habitat protection.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Vale, M. M., Cohn-Haft, M., Bergen, S., Pimm, S. L. 2009. Effects of future infrastructure development on threat status and occurrence of Amazonian birds. Conservation Biology 22: 1006–1015.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Pilgrim, J., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Cohn-Haft, M., Lees, A., Olmos, F.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Lepidothrix vilasboasi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Pipridae (Manakins)
Species name author Sick, 1959
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 79,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species