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Bare-necked Umbrellabird Cephalopterus glabricollis
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Justification
This species has been uplisted to Endangered because new information suggests that it has a very small population, which is suspected to be in rapid decline owing to continued forest loss and degradation, especially in its lowland non-breeding range.

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
36-41 cm. Large, ornate, black cotinga. Male glossy black. Large patch of (usually hanging) bright red bare skin from lower throat to upper chest, which is inflated during displays. Long and curled forward crown feathers (hence its vernacular name). Female smaller, duller and crown feathers reduced to frontal tuft. Voice Displaying males deliver low and far-carrying hooom hoots, accompanied by other staccato notes. Calls include grunts and coughs. Hints Best found on fruiting trees or by locating display arenas through calls.

Distribution and population
Cephalopterus glabricollis breeds locally on the Caribbean slope of the Cordilleras de Guanacaste, Tilarán and Talamanca in Costa Rica, and contiguous mountains in Panama, east to the Fortuna area, Bocas del Toro and Chiriquí (Collar et al. 1992). In the non-breeding season, it descends to the foothills and lowlands of the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica and southern Nicaragua (Múnera-Roldán et al. 2007), and in Panama it occurs east to Veraguas and Coclé (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989, Angehr and Jordán 1998). Isolated records from the Dota mountains, Costa Rica (Slud 1964) and from the Cordillera de Tolé, Panama (Wege 1993) likely correspond to the Caribbean side of those mountains or to the continental divide. It is now uncommon to rare and local throughout its range (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989, Stiles and Skutch 1989). This species’s breeding population in Costa Rican Important Bird Areas (IBAs) was assessed in 2007 and estimated at 740-1,430 mature individuals (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007); however, in 2009 this was revised to 190-330 mature individuals (Sánchez et al. 2009). In contrast, the 2007 estimate for the breeding population in the IBAs of Panama was given as 1,050-4,245 mature individuals, which is regarded by some as an overestimate (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007), and is limited by a lack of sufficient data from the core of its likely range in Panama, La Amistad International Park, where its breeding areas are mostly inaccessible (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). On the basis of this information, the species's total population is conservatively estimated at fewer than 2,500 mature individuals, and it is suspected to be in rapid decline owing to on-going forest clearance and degradation (G. Angehr in litt. 2011, Unión de Ornitólogos de Costa Rica in litt. 2011).

 

Population justification
This species's breeding population in Costa Rican Important Bird Areas (IBAs) has been estimated at 190-330 mature individuals (Sánchez et al. 2009). The 2007 estimate for the breeding population in the IBAs of Panama was given as 1,050-4,245 mature individuals, which is regarded by some as an overestimate (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007), and is limited by a lack of sufficient data from the core of its likely range in Panama, La Amistad International Park (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). On the basis of this information, the species's global population is conservatively placed in the band for 1,000-2,499 mature individuals, probably equivalent to a total population of 1,500-3,800 individuals.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with rates of habitat loss and degradation.

Ecology
It breeds in mature subtropical forest at elevations of 800-2,100 m, and spends the non-breeding season in lowland forest (Fogden and Fogden 1997, Chaves-Campos et al. 2003, Garrigues and Dean 2007, Angehr and Dean 2010), males generally at 100-500 m, and females chiefly below 200 m (Stiles and Skutch 1989). During the breeding season (March-June in Costa Rica [Garrigues and Dean 2007]; April-September in Panama [Angehr and Dean 2010]), males defend display arenas at 'exploded leks' (Crenshaw 2002). A study in Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve found that birds only occupied 20-30% of apparently suitable habitat (Fogden and Fogden 1997). These birds left the breeding areas in late July or August, and returned in March (Fogden and Fogden 1997, Chaves-Campos et al. 2003). The diet is largely frugivorous, but can also include anoles, frogs and large insects (Stiles and Skutch 1989, Crenshaw 2002, Chaves-Campos 2005) Altitudinal movements of radio-tagged birds in Costa Rica apparently coincided with peaks of fruit abundance (Chaves-Campos et al. 2003).

Threats
Lowland non-breeding habitat has been greatly reduced and is severely threatened, especially in the north of Costa Rica where 35% of the remaining forest was removed in 1986-1992 (Powell et al. 1995). Primary causes are conversion to banana and, more recently, to pineapple plantations, expansion of cattle-ranches and logging. Habitat corridors linking the species's breeding and non-breeding areas have thus been lost, and remaining forest fragments in the lowlands are being degraded through logging (Unión de Ornitólogos de Costa Rica in litt. 2011). In Panama, remaining lowland and foothill forests on the Caribbean slope are threatened by clearance for agriculture, even in legally protected areas such as the San San Pond Sak Wetlands Ramsar Site (Angehr and Jordán 1998, Angehr 2003). Deforestation may have accelerated within the species's range, owing to the construction of a highway between Punta Peña near Chiriquí Grande and Almirante, and increased subsistence agriculture and cattle-raising within the Ngobe-Bugle Comarca (G. Angehr in litt. 2007). Since c.2001, severe deforestation has been taking place within perhaps half of the species’s range in Panama (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). This has been particularly severe along the cordillera within the Comarca Ngobe-Bugle, in both breeding areas in the highlands and non-breeding areas in the foothills and lowlands, and deforestation has now reached the continental divide in some areas. Forest clearance may even be affecting potential non-breeding areas in La Amistad National Park in Panama (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). The elevation limits of this species's breeding range imply that it may be negatively affected by projected climate change.

 

Conservation Actions Underway
Breeding by this species has been recorded inside several protected areas, including Reserva Albeto Manuel Brenes Mesen, Reserva Privada Bosque Eterno de los Niños, Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, and it also presumably breeds in Braulio Carrillo and La Amistad National Parks, Fortuna Forest Reserve and Palo Seco Protection Forest (Stiles and Levey 1994, Fogden and Fogden 1997, Angehr and Jordán 1998, Angehr 2003, Chaves-Campos et al. 2003, Chaves-Campos in litt. 2007, G. Angehr in litt. 2007, Unión de Ornitólogos de Costa Rica in litt. 2011). In the non-breeding season, it has been recorded in the San San Pond Sak Wetlands Ramsar Site and at La Selva Biological Station (Stiles and Levey 1994, Angehr and Jordán 1998, Angehr 2003). A new protected area has been declared in the lowlands (Maquenque National Park, on the border with Nicaragua), but it is separated from the breeding range by large areas of deforested habitat. However, there is an on-going initiative to create a biological corridor between Maquenque and La Selva biological station which would allow the birds to utilise this protected habitat (Chaves-Campos in litt. 2007).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys throughout its range to estimate the total population size, paying particular attention to its suspected breeding range in Panama. Establish a system of lowland protected areas to conserve this species in the non-breeding season (Wege 1993, Chaves-Campos et al. 2003). Monitor the population at key breeding sites (e.g. Monteverde area) to assess population trends. Monitor rates of habitat loss throughout its range. Encourage further reforestation schemes in the lowlands, at least in Costa Rica, with the aim of restoring habitat corridors.


References
Alvarez-Cordero, E.; de Samudio, J.; Marquez Reyes, C.; Ellis, S. 1994. Conservation assessment and management plan workshop for bird and mammal species endemic to Panama. International Union for Nature Conservation and Natural Resources, Apple Valley, MN.

Angehr, G. R. 2003. Directory of important bird areas in Panama. Panama Audubon Society, Balbao, Panama.

Angehr, G. R.; Dean, R. 2010. The birds of Panama: a field guide. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Angehr, G. R.; Jordan, O. 1998. Report on the Panama Important Bird Areas program. Panama Audubon Society/BirdLife International, Ancon, Panamá.

Chaves-Campos, J. 2005. Bare-necked Umbrellabird (Cephalopterus glabriollis) foraging at an unusually large assemblage of army-ant following birds. Wilson Bulletin 117: 418-420.

Chaves-Campos, J.; Arévalo, J. E.; Araya, M. 2003. Altitudinal movements and conservation of Bare-necked Umbrellabird Cephalopterus glabricollis of the Tilarán Mountains, Costa Rica. Bird Conservation International 13: 45-58.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Crenshaw, M. C. 2002. Seeds in droppings of Bare-necked Umbrellabird Cephalopterus glabricollis in Monteverde, Costa Rica: analysis of overlap in fruit diet. Cotinga 18: 74-76.

Fogden, M. P. L.; Fogden, P. M. 1997. Notes on the behaviour of Bare-necked Umbrellabird Cephalopterus glabricollis in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, Costa Rica. Cotinga: 23-26.

Garrigues, R.; Dean, R, 2007. Field guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Christopher Helm, London.

Múnera-Roldán, C.; Cody, M. L.; Schiele-Zavala, R. H.; Sigel, B. J.; Woltmann, S.; Kjeldsen, J. P. 2007. New and noteworthy records of birds from south-eastern Nicaragua. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 127(2): 152-161.

Powell, G. V. N.; Bjork, R.; Montero, S.; Aleman, U. 1995. Intratropical migration by Ara ambigua: identifying habitat heterogeneity and linkages to protect biodiversity in lowland tropical wet forest of Central America.

Ridgely, R. S.; Gwynne, J. A. 1989. A guide to the birds of Panama with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Sánchez, J. E.; Criado, J.; Sánchez, C.; Sandoval, L. 2009. Costa Rica. In: Devenish, C.; Díaz Fernández, D. F.; Clay, R. P.; Davidson, I. J.; Yépez Zabala, I. (ed.), Important Bird Areas Americas – Priority sites for biodiversity conservation, BirdLife International, Quito.

Slud, P. 1964. The birds of Costa Rica: distribution and ecology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 128: 1-446.

Stiles, F. G.; Levey, D. J. 1994. Birds of La Selva and vicinity. In: L. A. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A.Hespenheide and G. S Hartshorn (eds), La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest, pp. 384-393. University of Chicago Press., Chicago, IL, USA.

Stiles, F.G. and Skutch, A.F. 1989. A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Wege, D. 1993. Red Data Bird: Bare-necked Umbrellabird. World Birdwatch 15: 18-19.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Stuart, T., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Angehr, G., Arévalo, E., Chaves-Campos, J., Criado, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cephalopterus glabricollis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Bare-necked umbrellabird (Cephalopterus glabricollis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Cotingidae (Cotingas)
Species name author Gould, 1851
Population size 1000-2499 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 14,400 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species