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White-winged Cotinga Xipholena atropurpurea
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Justification
This species is Endangered because it has a very small and severely fragmented range in an area where there has been extensive habitat destruction.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
19 cm. Strikingly patterned cotinga. Male has blackish-purple body, paler on rump and crissum with short tail. White wings with black tips to primaries. Whitish iris. Female has drab grey upperparts with hint of pale eye-stripe. Darker wings fringed white. Dusky tail. Pale grey throat with darker breast mottled whitish. Greyish-white on rest of underparts. Similar spp. Female Banded Cotinga Cotinga maculata is more scaled below, lacks white edging on wing feathers, and has dark eye. Voice High-pitched, hollow tchíu notes. Also wing-whirring in flight.

Distribution and population
Xipholena atropurpurea is now virtually confined to 13 protected areas in east Brazil: Paraíba (old specimens and a few recent records), Pernambuco (a few recent records), Alagoas (recent records from two sites), Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro (recent records from two sites). 

Population justification
Teixeira and de Almeida (1997) estimated the population to number 5,110-19,546 individuals, rounded here to 5,100-19,500 individuals. This is roughly equivalent to 3,400-13,000 mature individuals. Censuses at Estação Vera Cruz (formerly CRVD Porto Seguro), Bahia, estimated a mean of 12.42 individuals / km2 and a mean population of 748 which, extrapolated to the 13 protected areas (covering an area of 992 km2), totals 12,322 individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected based on rates of habitat loss.

Ecology
It occurs in primary lowland and adjacent foothill Atlantic forest (up to 900 m), mostly in forests near the coast. In the northern part of its range it is found in dense primary forest, more open forest and semi-deciduous forests, but also occurs in selectively logged primary and secondary forests, as well as fragmented woodlots. The diet consists of fruit, especially Moraceae, Myrtaceae and Lauraceae, taken in the forest canopy or around clearings, and some insects (larval Lepidopterans and Orthoptera). It is mostly solitary, gathering only at fruiting trees, though, in south Bahia, birds have been observed associating with C. maculata and thrush Turdus spp. Males display between November and February, and nests (placed high in the fork of a branch) have been found in October and November.

Threats
This species is threatened by extensive and continuing deforestation, with nearly 60% of suitable habitat disappearing in the period 1980-1997. Many of the protected areas in which it occurs are still under threat and inadequately protected, such as Monte Pascoal in Bahia. Thirteen out of 29 fruiting trees included in its diet are exploited for timber. However, the species is rarely found in bird markets, and is only opportunistically hunted. A widespread fire in July 1995 destroyed most of the forest at one site in Bahia (E. O. Willis and Y. Oniki in litt. 1999), and such instances are a potential threat to many sites.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and protected under Brazilian law. It is largely dependent on 13 protected areas, notably those at Pedra Talhada, Una, Monte Pascoal, Sooretama, Desengano and Linhares. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey all remnants of forest within its range. Monitor the population. Effectively protect key sites, especially the privately-owned Murici, Estação Vera Cruz and Linhares. Plant native trees in areas surrounding Sooretama and Linhares.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Teixeira, D. M.; de Almeida, A. C. C. 1997. A biologia da "Escarradeira", Xipholena atropurpurea (Wied, 1820) (Aves: Cotingidae).

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Clay, R., Mazar Barnett, J., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R.

Contributors
Oniki, Y., Willis, E.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Xipholena atropurpurea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - White-winged cotinga (Xipholena atropurpurea) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Cotingidae (Cotingas)
Species name author (Wied, 1820)
Population size 3400-13000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,800 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species