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Banded Cotinga Cotinga maculata
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Justification
This species qualifies as Endangered because it has a very small range and population, which is fragmented and likely to be rapidly declining as a result of continuing habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
20 cm. Strikingly beautiful, dark blue cotinga. Male has bright, dark cobalt-blue upperparts, somewhat mottled black on back. Bright purple throat to mid-belly, dissected by blue breast-band. Rest of underparts and undertail-coverts blue. Black wings and tail with lesser and median coverts broadly edged blue. Female is dusky brown above scaled whitish. Slightly paler and buffier underparts with quite broad scaling, giving paler appearance. Indistinct, whitish eye-ring. Dark iris. Similar spp. Female White-winged Cotinga Xipholena atropurpurea is not as scaly, but more uniform grey, with white fringing on wings and pale iris. Voice Low, quiet cries reported.

Distribution and population
Cotinga maculata occurs in south-east Bahia and north Espírito Santo, with two recent records from northeast Minas Gerais (Santa Maria do Salto and Bandeira municipalities) (Ribon et al. 2004, Ribon et al. 2005) and none since the 19th century in Rio de Janeiro, south-east Brazil. It has declined significantly in abundance and distribution and is confined to a few protected areas, notably Sooretama, RPPN Estação Veracruz (formerly Porto Seguro) and Linhares Forest Reserve. It was not common even in the early 20th century and, given its fragmented distribution, overall numbers cannot be high.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and ongoing population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss and fragmentation.

Ecology
It inhabits the canopy of primary, humid, lowland Atlantic forest, and is often observed along the edge of clearings, though this may reflect observational bias. The diet has been recorded as seeds, berries and fruit, but also includes caterpillars and other insects. A nest (a flimsy cup-shaped structure of twigs placed in the fork of an almost horizontal branch in the canopy) attended by an incubating female was found in October (Gonzaga and Collar 2010). It has also been reported nesting inside an arboreal termite nest, although this requires confirmation (Snow 2004, Gonzaga and Collar 2010). Local movements, at least of part of the population, may have occurred in the past, but this is apparently no longer the case.

Threats
The extensive and continuing deforestation within its range has isolated populations in a few key protected areas. In the past, birds were collected for feather-flower craftwork by local Indians and Bahian nuns. Capture for the cage-bird trade has also been considered a threat. The apparent scarcity of the species in trade during recent decades is probably a consequence of its rarity. One of the species's strongholds, Estação Vera Cruz, was recently purchased by a paper-producing company whose plans to clear the forest have apparently now been abandoned (F. Olmos in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and protected by Brazilian law. It is present in four protected areas of which the Estação Veracruz in Bahia and the Sooretama Biological Reserve and adjacent Linhares Forest Reserve in Espírito Santo may be of critical importance. It is also found in the threatened Monte Pascoal National Park, Bahia, and may possibly occur in the Rio Doce State Park, Minas Gerais. 400 ha of forest at Bandeira, Minas Gerais has recently been protected (P. Develey and A. C. De Luca in litt. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey areas of suitable habitat within its range to locate further populations. Continue protection of Linhares and Sooretama, and plant native trees in surrounding areas.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Gonzaga, L. P.; Collar, N. J. 2010. A nest of Banded Cotinga Cotinga maculata. Cotinga: 165-166.

Ribon, R.; de Mattos, G. T.; Ribeiro Luiz, E.; de Castro Morais, F.; de Andrade, R.N.; Resende, F.C.; de Melo, F.; Chiarello, A. G.; Abreu, C. R.M. 2004. Avifauna da floresta ombrófila densa do vale do Jequituinhonha, nordeste de Minas Gerais. Resumos XII Congreso Brasileiro de Ornitologica, pp. 345. Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau, Brazil.

Snow, D. W. 2004. Famikly Cotingidae (Cotingas). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Christie, D. A. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World , pp. 32-108. Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Clay, R., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R.

Contributors
De Luca, A., Develey, P., Olmos, F.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cotinga maculata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Cotingidae (Cotingas)
Species name author (M
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 780 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species