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Cinnamon-vented Piha Lipaugus lanioides

Justification
This species has a larger range and population than was once thought, and it appears to tolerate some habitat degradation, however it is still thought to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss and it is consequently classified as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
28 cm. Dull cotinga. Brownish-grey overall. Faint scaled effect on crown. Slightly paler and duller underparts. Warmer brown wings, tail and crissum. Similar spp. Screaming Piha L. vociferans is much greyer, tinged olivaceous. Voice Strident whistle kíou-kíou kíu-kít. Softer than L. vociferans.

Distribution and population
Lipaugus lanioides occurs in Atlantic forest from Bahia to Santa Catarina, south-east Brazil. The species was assumed to be rare and local, and is known to have vanished from areas such as Itatiaia National Park despite the presence of good habitat there. Nevertheless, it is known to occur in logged forest (where it may become more common compared to undisturbed sites), and even in areas of old undergrowth growing in derelict Eucalyptus plantations. In areas such as the Paranapiacaba range of São Paulo, it is fairly easily found and seems to be so in most of the Ribeira de Iguape valley in São Paulo and neighboring Paraná. In recent years it has been located in a number of unreported localities, and it is likely that the species has a continuous range over most of the Serra do Mar from southern Rio de Janeiro to Paraná and, perhaps, Santa Catarina.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number at least 10,000 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is roughly equivalent to 6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss.

Ecology
It occurs in foothill and montane forests but is able to persist in logged forest and has been found in derelict Eucalyptus plantations. Birds are most frequently observed 5-25 m above ground-level in the forest shade (Willis and Oniki 1998). The diet includes more than twenty (commonly palm) fruit species as well as insects (Aleixo and Galetti 1997), whereas nestlings are fed primarily large insects, and less frequently fruit (Willis and Oniki 1998). Males sing from September to March at solitary display territories (E. O. Willis and Y. Oniki in litt. 1999) or small leks of two or three birds. Altitudinal movements may occur, at least in the south of its range where the species has been recorded near sea-level.

Threats
The most significant threat is the extensive destruction and fragmentation of Atlantic forest throughout its range. The harvesting of Euterpe palms may further affect some populations.


Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected under Brazilian law, and occurs in several protected areas, notably Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve and and Intervales State Park, with further populations in Monte Pascoal and Serra dos Órgãos National Parks and Rio Doce and Serra do Brigadeiro State Parks (F. Olmos and P. Martuscelli in litt. 1995, Simon et al. 1999). Conservation Actions Proposed
Effectively protect remaining areas of Atlantic forest where the species occurs. Continue to search for the species at new localities. Monitor known strongholds such as Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve.

References
Aleixo, A.; Galetti, M. 1997. The conservation of the avifauna in a lowland Atlantic forest in south-east Brazil. Bird Conservation International 7: 235-261.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

do Rosário, L. A. 1996. As aves em Santa Catarina: distribuiçao geográfica e meio ambiente. Glorianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Simon, J. E.; Ribon, R.; Mattos, G. M.; Abreu, C. R. M. 1999. A avifauna do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais. Revista Arvore 23: 33-48.

Willis, E. O.; Oniki, Y. 1998. One-parent nesting in Cinnamon-vented Pihas Lipaugus lanioides, Cotinginae, Typrannidae. Ornitologia Neotropical 9(2): 129-159.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Clay, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R.

Contributors
Butchart, S., Martuscelli, P., Olmos, F., Oniki, Y., Symes, A., Venturini, A., Willis, E.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Lipaugus lanioides. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Cotingidae (Cotingas)
Species name author (Lesson, 1844)
Population size 6700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 202,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species