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VU
Scimitar-winged Piha Lipaugus uropygialis

Justification
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it is known from only a few locations and has a small range, which is declining owing to habitat clearance and fragmentation.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Chirocylla uropygialis Stotz et al. (1996), Chirocylla uropygialis BirdLife International (2004)

Identification
26-30 cm. Dull grey cotinga. Darker above and duskier on wings. Rufous belly and rump are difficult to see when perched. Long tail. Male has narrow and strongly recurved primaries. Female primaries are much less modified. Voice A noisy, variable shriek like an Aratinga parakeet, each burst consisting of individual notes that rise and fall sharply, with groups of individuals giving a more complex combination of shrieks (Bryce et al. 2005).

Distribution and population
Lipaugus uropygialis is confined to the subtropical Yungas (east slopes of the Andes) of central and west Bolivia (eight known localities in Cochabamba and La Paz) and south-east Peru (Abra de Maracunca, Puno and Alto Urubamba, Cusco) (Remsen et al. 1982, B. Hennessey in litt. 1999, Bryce et al. 2005, B. P. Walker in litt. 2007). Recent records from Madidi National Park, La Paz and the north-east side of the Cordillera Cocapata, Cochabamba (Hennessey and Gomez 2003, Bryce et al. 2005) suggest that it occurs in the two largest expanses of previously unexplored Bolivian and Peruvian Upper Yungas. Gaps in its range may reflect observer coverage (J. Balderama, T. Gallick, S. K. Herzog, M. Kessler, R. S. Ridgely, J. Rossouw, T. S. Schulenberg, B. P. Walker and B. Woods per B. Hennessey in litt. 1999), or may be genuine gaps in distribution as in e.g. Southern Helmeted Curassow Crax unicornis (B. Hennessey in litt. 1999). Described as uncommon and local (Snow 1982, Ridgely and Tudor 1994), like other Andean pihas it appears to be a naturally low-density species (J. V. Remsen in litt. 1986).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals (J. V. Remsen in litt. 1986).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 14.3% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (10 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.

Ecology
It occurs in humid, subtropical, montane forest at 1,800-2,750 m (Remsen et al. 1982, J. Balderama, T. Gallick, S. K. Herzog, M. Kessler, R. S. Ridgely, J. Rossouw, T. S. Schulenberg, B. P. Walker and B. Woods per B. Hennessey in litt. 1999). Old-growth forest may be required at some stage in its life-cycle, although it has been seen in degraded forest at the Peruvian site (J. Balderama, T. Gallick, S. K. Herzog, M. Kessler, R. S. Ridgely, J. Rossouw, T. S. Schulenberg, B. P. Walker and B. Woods per B. Hennessey in litt. 1999, B. Hennessey in litt. 1999, Bryce et al. 2005). Within primary forest it is apparently restricted to specific spots, often associated with ridges, suggesting it may have unknown microhabitat requirements and therefore may not occur in all apparently suitable forests within its range (Bryce et al. 2005). It is absent from some areas of former occurrence that have now been affected by forest disturbance associated with road construction (B. Hennessey in litt. 1999). It has been seen accompanying mixed-species flocks (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, J. Balderama, T. Gallick, S. K. Herzog, M. Kessler, R. S. Ridgely, J. Rossouw, T. S. Schulenberg, B. P. Walker and B. Woods per B. Hennessey in litt. 1999). Stomach contents of one specimen comprised berries and fruit (Snow 1982), and it has been recorded eating fruit, flycatching and eating a caterpillar (J. Balderama, T. Gallick, S. K. Herzog, M. Kessler, R. S. Ridgely, J. Rossouw, T. S. Schulenberg, B. P. Walker and B. Woods per B. Hennessey in litt. 1999, B. Hennessey in litt. 1999, Bryce et al. 2005). It is unobtrusive but responds to tape playback (B. P. Walker in litt. 2007). It has been observed in groups of up to four birds, especially when displaying, but appears to be genuinely rare and local even in pristine forest (Bryce et al. 2005, B. P. Walker in litt. 2007).

Threats
Road construction, low-intensity agriculture, selective logging and, at lower altitudes, clearance for plantations of tea, coffee and coca affect its habitat, although extensive areas of largely undisturbed forest remain (Dinerstein et al. 1995, B. Hennessey in litt. 1999). These threats are likely to increase. Furthermore, the species may require old-growth forest, making selective and small-scale logging a more serious threat than it is to other birds endemic to the Yungas (B. Hennessey in litt. 1999). Areas near the Peruvian locality have been extensively or completely deforested, owing to thousands of years of human land-use (J. Balderama, T. Gallick, S. K. Herzog, M. Kessler, R. S. Ridgely, J. Rossouw, T. S. Schulenberg, B. P. Walker and B. Woods per B. Hennessey in litt. 1999).


Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded in the extreme north-west of Carrasco National Park, Cochabamba, in Cotapata National Park, La Paz (B. Hennessey in litt. 1999, J. Balderama, T. Gallick, S. K. Herzog, M. Kessler, R. S. Ridgely, J. Rossouw, T. S. Schulenberg, B. P. Walker and B. Woods per B. Hennessey in litt. 1999) and Alto Urubamba in the newly-created Megantoni National Sanctuary, Cusco, Peru (B. P. Walker in litt. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Search for new localities and population strongholds, concentrating on Yungas forests of SE Peru and Bolivia at 1,500-3,000 m. Conduct research into habitat requirements and possible seasonal movements (Hennessey and Gomez 2003). Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

References
Bryce, R.; Hennessey, A. B.; MacLeod, R.; Evans, K.; Ewing, S. R.; Herzog, S. K.; Maccormick, A.; Gomez, M. I. 2005. First sound recordings, new behvioural and distributional records, and a review of the status of Scimitar-winged Piha Lipaugus uropygialis. Cotinga 24: 102-106.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Hennessey, aB.; Gomez, M. I. 2003. Four bird species new to Bolivia: an ornithological survey of the Yungas site Tokoaque, Madidi National Park. Cotinga 19: 25-33.

Remsen, J. V.; Parker, T. A.; Ridgely, R. S. 1982. Natural history notes on some poorly known Bolivian birds. Le Gerfaut 72: 77-87.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Snow, D. 1982. The cotingas: bellbirds, umbrellabirds and their allies. British Museum (Natural History) and Oxford University Press, London and Oxford.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Temple, H.

Contributors
Balderama, J., Gallick, T., Hennessey, A., Herzog, S., Kessler, M., Remsen, J., Ridgely, R., Rossouw, J., Schulenberg, T., Walker, B., Woods, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Lipaugus uropygialis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Scimitar-winged piha (Lipaugus uropygialis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Cotingidae (Cotingas)
Species name author Sclater & Salvin, 1876
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,700 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species