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Grey-winged Cotinga Tijuca condita

Justification
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small population, restricted to a cluster of montane areas. There are currently no major threats to its habitat, so the population is suspected to be stable, but dry season fires may pose a risk in the near future.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
24 cm. Greenish cotinga. Olive-green upperparts with yellower rump. Dull grey forehead, lores, below eye, chin and upper throat, with grizzled effect in chin and throat. Bright olive-yellow breast, becoming yellower on belly. Olive-brown wings with silver-grey outer webs forming wing panel. Yellowish-olive wing-coverts. Dark olive-brown tail with grey outer webs. Slim grey bill. Females duller with less grey on head. Similar spp. Female Black-and-gold Cotinga T. atra is larger and stockier, more uniformly olive and occurs at lower altitudes. Voice Song is explosive, dysillabic zuuee wheé of c.1.25 seconds. Less plaintive and shorter than T. atra.

Distribution and population
Tijuca condita was thought to be restricted to the Serra dos órgãos and the Serra do Tinguá in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, where it occurs in naturally fragmented habitat, but recent surveys have doubled the known range and found the species in the Serra das Araras and at Nova Caledônia (Alves et al. 2008). The area is difficult to survey, owing to the inaccessibility of suitable habitat, but only small numbers of birds have ever been recorded and it appears to occur at very low densities (Alves et al. 2008). The population is estimated to be between 1,000 and 2,499 individuals.



Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be stable, as there is no evidence of declines and no obvious threats to the species's habitat, although forest fires are a potential threat.

Ecology
It occurs in patches of extremely humid, elfin cloud-forest, rich in bromeliads and with a rather even canopy 5-10 m high, both on exposed ridges and sheltered slopes above the main treeline. It is usually found at 1,650-2,010 m, but there is one record from Serra do Tinguá at 1,370 m (Alves et al. 2008, S. Pimm, M. A. Alvez and C. Jenkins in litt. 2012). It appears to be very localised within its narrow elevational range, and the extent of suitable habitat may be as little as 200 km2 (Alves et al. 2008, S. Pimm, M. A. Alvez and C. Jenkins in litt. 2012). A female caught in mid-November had a well developed brood-patch, suggesting breeding at that time. Little is known about its diet, but one bird has been seen eating small red berries.

Threats
Although there are no obvious immediate threats to its habitat at known sites, both disturbance and fires caused by hikers have been considered potential threats. The newly discovered population at Nova Caledônia is more accessible and susceptible to disturbance by hikers and other tourists, and logging is a potential concern here, although not at present, with eucalyptus plantations encroaching on habitat below the species's elevation range (A. Foster in litt. 2014). In September 1993, a major forest fire was noted in or adjacent to Serra dos órgãos National Park, indicating that this threat could be particularly significant. Similarly, a major forest fire burned at least 25% of suitable habitat at Nova Caledônia in 2011 (J. King in litt. 2012). Projected climate change could cause shifts in the distribution and extent of its habitat and thus its elevation range (S. Pimm in litt. 2013), with some anecdotal observations suggesting that the species is moving upslope at Nova Caledônia (A. Foster in litt. 2013).

Conservation Actions Underway
Three of the populations occur within protected areas: (Serra dos órgãos National Park, Tinguá Biological Reserve, and Araras Biological Reserve). The population at Nova Caledônia is not in an effective protected area. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to determine its status within the protected areas. Quantify potential threats. Protect the species under Brazilian law.

References
Alves, M. A. S.; Pimm, S. L.; Storni, A.; Raposo, M. A.; Brooke, M. deL.; Harris, G.; Foster, A.; Jenkins, C. N. 2008. Mapping and exploring the distribution of the vulnerable Grey-winged Cotinga Tijuca condita. Oryx 42(4): 562-566.

Alves, M.A.S., Pimm, S.L., Storni, A., Raposo, M.A., Brooke, M. de L., Harris, G., Foster, A. and Jenkins, C.M. 2008. Mapping and exploring the distribution of the vulnerable grey-winged cotinga Tijuca condita. Oryx 42(4): 562-566.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Clay, R., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Williams, R.

Contributors
Alves, M., Foster, A., Jenkins, C., King, J. & Pimm, S.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tijuca condita. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Cotingidae (Cotingas)
Species name author Snow, 1980
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,300 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species