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VU
Philippine Duck Anas luzonica

Justification
This duck is listed as Vulnerable because it is undergoing a rapid and continuing decline owing to extensive over-hunting and the widespread conversion of its wetland habitats.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
48-58 cm. Distinctive, large, dabbling duck. All plumages alike. Blackish crown, nape and eye-stripe. Rusty-cinnamon rest of head and neck. Otherwise greyish-brown with bright green speculum, bordered with black with narrow white trailing edge. Bluish-grey bill, grey-brown legs. Voice Typical quacks.

Distribution and population
Anas luzonica is endemic to the Philippines, being recorded from all the major islands and eight smaller islands. Records since 1980 derive from c.30 localities, most on Luzon and Mindanao. Records from Siquijor and the Sulus remain unsubstantiated. A steep population decline was evident by the mid-1970s, with high numbers recorded at only a few sites in the following decade, e.g. Candaba Marsh (Luzon) which probably supported many thousands in the early 1980s. Subsequent local extinctions and near-disappearances have occurred in several significant sites, including Candaba Marsh and Buguey wetlands (where several thousand were recorded in 1983). Important current areas include Polillo Island (240 seen and an estimated 3,000 present in 1996), Subic Bay (600 seen in 1997), Magat dam (2,000 were seen in 2001) and Malasi lakes (1,320 were recorded in 2002), Luzon. Other recent records come from Mangatarem, Pangasinan (east of Zambales Mountains IBA) where 70 individuals were counted on the Barabac River inside the Manleluag Spring National Park, Cantilan mangroves in Surigao del Sur and from a mangrove fishpond in Bicol Region, Southern Luzon (B. Tabaranza in litt. 2007). In 1993, its population was estimated at 10,000-100,000, but by 2002 fewer than 10,000 birds were thought to remain.

Population justification
A total of 4,632 individuals were counted in the Asian Waterbird Census in 2004, and 4,428 in 2005 (D. Li in litt. 2005). The total population is likely to fall between 5,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A steep population decline was evident by the mid-1970s, with high numbers recorded at only a few sites in the following decade. Subsequent local extinctions and near-disappearances have occurred in several significant sites, owing to exceptionally high levels of hunting and trapping, conversion of natural wetlands, mangrove destruction and the recent extensive use of pesticides on rice-fields. This species's population is suspected to be undergoing a rapid and continuing decline in line with these impacts.

Ecology
It frequents most freshwater and saltwater habitats, including mangroves, open sea and watercourses inside forest. It appears to be sedentary although some seasonal aggregation occurs. It feeds on fish, shrimps, insects, rice and young vegetation.

Threats
Exceptionally high levels of hunting and trapping have been evident since the 1960s. Thousands were reportedly shot weekly in August-October and January-March in the late 1980s. Conversion of natural wetlands through drainage, adoption of aquaculture and fishpond creation caused its near-extinction at Candaba Marsh and threatens the Polillo population. The on-going conversion of habitat at Liguasan is also thought to be impacting the species (D. Allen in litt. 2012). Mangrove destruction and the recent extensive use of pesticides on rice-fields are also likely to have had serious impacts.


Conservation Actions Underway
It is legally protected at five localities: Mt Iglit-Baco and Lake Naujan National Parks (Mindoro), Maria Aurora Memorial Natural Park and Bataan Natural Park/Subic Bay Forest Reserve (Luzon), and Olango Island (a Ramsar site). The Mayor of Candaba has designated part of Candaba Marsh as a protected area and two local conservation groups have been established as well as promotional materials: signs and a video documentary (B. Tabaranza in litt. 2007). The Manleluag Spring National Park, Mangatarem, Pangasinan has been a Protected Landscape since 1940 under Proclamation No. 612. At present, with the assistance of Haribon, the Local government of Mangatarem and the Protected Area Management Board of the park are proposing to expand the area of the park from 1,935 hectares to 4,240 hectares to include all the remaining tropical rainforests extending up to the boundary with Zambales Province. A government ban on firearms was imposed in 1972, although hunting continues. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey remaining wetland areas, especially around Polillo and Subic Bay. Conduct long-term ecological studies to establish management requirements. Afford protected status to key sites (e.g. Polillo). Recreate natural marsh habitat at Candaba. Develop a management plan for the remaining wetland habitat at Lake Naujan.

References
Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Temple, H.

Contributors
Allen, D., Li, D., Nobili, E., Tabaranza, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anas luzonica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Philippine duck (Anas luzonica) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author Fraser, 1839
Population size 3300-6700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 281,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species