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Mallard Anas platyrhynchos

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 22,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.19,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals in Korea and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable, fluctuating, increasing, and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (99.3% increase over 40 years, equating to a 18.8% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) In Europe, trends since 1980 have been stable, based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes  
Albania Native Extant      
Algeria Native Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant      
Armenia Native Extant      
Australia Introduced Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahamas Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant      
Belgium Native Extant      
Belize Native Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant Yes    
Bhutan Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Brunei Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant     Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Cook Islands Vagrant Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes  
Croatia Native Extant     Yes
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant      
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Djibouti Vagrant Extant      
Dominican Republic Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant     Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant      
Fiji Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
Gambia Vagrant Extant      
Georgia Native Extant      
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant     Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guatemala Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant     Yes
Iceland Native Extant      
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant      
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes
Ireland Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant Yes    
Italy Native Extant      
Jamaica Vagrant Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant   Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kiribati Vagrant Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Latvia Native Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Mali Vagrant Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Marshall Islands Unknown Extant      
Martinique (to France) Vagrant Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Unknown Extant      
Moldova Native Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
New Caledonia (to France) Introduced Possibly Extinct Yes    
New Zealand Introduced Extant Yes    
Nicaragua Native Extant      
Niger Vagrant Extant      
Nigeria Vagrant Extant      
North Korea Native Extant Yes    
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant     Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes  
Panama Vagrant Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant     Yes
Portugal Native Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes  
Romania Native Extant     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant     Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes  
Senegal Vagrant Extant      
Serbia Native Extant      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant     Yes
Slovenia Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant      
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant   Yes  
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant Yes   Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Native Extant     Yes
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Thailand Vagrant Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant      
USA Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Vanuatu Vagrant Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes  
Zambia Vagrant Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex site factsheet
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary) site factsheet
Canada Cumberland Marshes site factsheet
Canada Delta Marsh site factsheet
Canada Eagle, Namaka and Stobart Lakes site factsheet
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes site factsheet
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA site factsheet
Canada Whitewater Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Aksu River basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Bachu Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Bosten Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng site factsheet
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River site factsheet
China (mainland) Hongfeng Hu and Baihua Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Jianhu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan site factsheet
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Hungary Kis-Sárrét site factsheet
Hungary Lake Balaton site factsheet
Hungary Sárvíz Valley site factsheet
India Kanjli Lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Mahzam and Lake Tharthar site factsheet
Japan Lake Hyoko site factsheet
Japan Lakes Oyama Kamiike and Shimoike site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Otgontenger Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes site factsheet
Pakistan Head Qadirabad Game Reserve site factsheet
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park site factsheet
Pakistan Mangla Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Marala Game Reserve site factsheet
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir site factsheet
Poland Mietkow reservoir site factsheet
Poland Nysa reservoir site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Lunca Siretului Mijlociu site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lake system near Lotoshnoye village site factsheet
Russia (European) Burukshunskiye limans site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area site factsheet
Russia (European) Krasnodarskoye reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Surski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Terek River (Mozdokski District) site factsheet
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system site factsheet
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Donglim reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Gangjin Bay site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geumho-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Han-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Han-gang river site factsheet
South Korea Junam reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Upo swamp site factsheet
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake site factsheet
Spain Ampurdán marshes site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes site factsheet
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes site factsheet
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir site factsheet
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly site factsheet
Turkmenistan Gurtli site factsheet
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui site factsheet
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol site factsheet
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun site factsheet
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay site factsheet
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif site factsheet
Ukraine Dnipro delta site factsheet
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays site factsheet
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman site factsheet
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system site factsheet
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays site factsheet
USA Cache and Lower White Rivers site factsheet
USA Montezuma Wetlands Complex site factsheet
Uzbekistan Achinskoe Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe site factsheet
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Talimarzhan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Yuzhno-Surkhan (South-Surkhan) Reservoir site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anas platyrhynchos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 22,500,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species