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Mallard Anas platyrhynchos

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 22,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.19,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals in Korea and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.10,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable, fluctuating, increasing, and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (99.3% increase over 40 years, equating to a 18.8% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) In Europe, trends since 1980 have been stable, based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes    
Albania Native Extant       Yes
Algeria Native Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant        
Armenia Native Extant       Yes
Australia Introduced Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahamas Native Extant        
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes    
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Belize Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant Yes      
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant       Yes
Brunei Vagrant Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
Canada Native Extant     Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Cook Islands Vagrant Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Croatia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Cyprus Native Extant       Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Djibouti Vagrant Extant        
Dominican Republic Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes  
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Fiji Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gambia Vagrant Extant        
Georgia Native Extant       Yes
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guatemala Native Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Jamaica Vagrant Extant        
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant   Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kiribati Vagrant Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant       Yes
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malaysia Native Extant        
Mali Vagrant Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Marshall Islands Unknown Extant        
Martinique (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Unknown Extant        
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant       Yes
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
New Caledonia (to France) Introduced Possibly Extinct Yes      
New Zealand Introduced Extant Yes      
Nicaragua Native Extant        
Niger Vagrant Extant        
Nigeria Vagrant Extant        
North Korea Native Extant Yes      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant     Yes Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes    
Panama Vagrant Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Qatar Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes    
Senegal Vagrant Extant        
Serbia Native Extant       Yes
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
Somalia Native Extant        
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant   Yes    
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Thailand Vagrant Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Vanuatu Vagrant Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes    
Zambia Vagrant Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex site factsheet
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary) site factsheet
Canada Cumberland Marshes site factsheet
Canada Delta Marsh site factsheet
Canada Eagle, Namaka and Stobart Lakes site factsheet
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes site factsheet
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA site factsheet
Canada Whitewater Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Aksu River basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Bachu Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Bosten Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng site factsheet
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River site factsheet
China (mainland) Hongfeng Hu and Baihua Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Jianhu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan site factsheet
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube site factsheet
Croatia Pokupski pool site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Hungary Kis-Sárrét site factsheet
Hungary Lake Balaton site factsheet
Hungary Sárvíz Valley site factsheet
India Kanjli Lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Lake Tharthar and Al-Dhebaeji Fields site factsheet
Japan Lake Hyoko site factsheet
Japan Lakes Oyama Kamiike and Shimoike site factsheet
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir site factsheet
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10 site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River site factsheet
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Otgontenger Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes site factsheet
Pakistan Head Qadirabad Game Reserve site factsheet
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park site factsheet
Pakistan Mangla Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Marala Game Reserve site factsheet
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir site factsheet
Poland Mietkow reservoir site factsheet
Poland Nysa reservoir site factsheet
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Lunca Siretului Mijlociu site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lake system near Lotoshnoye village site factsheet
Russia (European) Burukshunskiye limans site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area site factsheet
Russia (European) Krasnodarskoye reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Surski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Terek River (Mozdokski District) site factsheet
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system site factsheet
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Donglim reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Gangjin Bay site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geumho-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Han-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Han-gang river site factsheet
South Korea Junam reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Upo swamp site factsheet
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake site factsheet
Spain Ampurdán marshes site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes site factsheet
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes site factsheet
Spain Villafáfila site factsheet
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir site factsheet
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly site factsheet
Turkmenistan Gurtli site factsheet
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui site factsheet
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol site factsheet
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun site factsheet
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay site factsheet
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif site factsheet
Ukraine Dnipro delta site factsheet
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays site factsheet
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman site factsheet
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system site factsheet
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays site factsheet
USA Cache-Lower White Rivers site factsheet
USA Montezuma Wetlands Complex site factsheet
Uzbekistan Achinskoe Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe site factsheet
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Talimarzhan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tuyabuguz Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Yuzhno-Surkhan (South-Surkhan) Reservoir site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anas platyrhynchos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 22,500,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species