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Tumbes Tyrant Tumbezia salvini

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it has a moderately small range in which ongoing habitat degradation is likely to be causing it to decline.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Ochthoeca salvini Collar and Andrew (1988), Ochthoeca salvini Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Ochthoeca salvini Collar et al. (1994)

Distribution and population
Tumbezia salvini is endemic to extreme north-west Peru, from Tumbes south to La Libertad, where it is often considered uncommon (Ridgely and Tudor 1994). However it is widespread in suitable habitat, for instance a survey along the Quebrada Fernandez between Tumbes and Piura, along a transect of 35 km found the species at 23 out of 27 sites sampled (F. P. Angulo in litt. 2007). In 2008, it was recorded near the town of Zapotillo in south-west Ecuador, very close to the Peruvian border (Davies and Miller 2009). 

Population justification
Angulo (in litt. undated) states that Lambayeque department definitely holds more that 100 pairs. If only a 1000 ha area holds at least five individuals (we can estimate a rough density of one individual/200 ha), and the available habitat in Lambayeque [between 50-700 m elevation] can be roughly estimated at 250,000 ha, the population would be at least 1,250 individuals. In Quebrada Frejolillo (the famous place to see the White-winged Guan in the wild) in an area of approximately 300 ha, there are at least six birds, which gives an estimate of one bird/50 ha. With this number, the Lambayeque population would be 5,000 individuals and the whole population 20,000 (considering that Lambayeque and Piura together have 1,000,000 ha of suitable habitat). In light of this the population is best considered to number 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, equivalent to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000.

Trend justification
Habitat degradation is likely to be driving a slow to moderate decline.

Ecology
It inhabits lowland Algarrobo Prosopis pallida forests at 25 masl, arid scrub, arid scrub with scattered Algarrobo trees from lower parts of the hills of the west slope of the Andes, to dense deciduous dry forests at 700 m (F. P. Angulo in litt. 2007). It has been considered to usually occur near watercourses (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Parker et al. 1996), but it has also been found in areas where the nearest water source is about 25 km away and on heavily grazed, deforested, arid and low density type forests without vine tangles (F. P. Angulo in litt. 2007). It perhaps undertakes local seasonal movements (Barrio 1997).

Threats
Habitat destruction is the principal threat, with logging, understorey clearance and loss of riverine thickets to irrigated agriculture, and over-grazing by goat the main processes (Best and Kessler 1995, Stattersfield et al. 1998).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey at a number of different sites to estimate population size. Research the effects of grazing and wood cutting on populations of the species. Protect significant areas of forest, in both strictly protected areas and community led multiple use areas.

References
Barrio, J. 1997. Photo Spot: Tumbes Tyrant Tumbezia salvini. Cotinga: 87-89.

Best, B. J.; Kessler, M. 1995. Biodiversity and conservation in Tumbesian Ecuador and Peru. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Clements, J. F.; Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Davies, A.; Miller, R. 2009. Discovery of Tumbes Tyrant Tumbezia salvini in Ecuador. Cotinga: 137.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Angulo Pratolongo, F., Barrio, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tumbezia salvini. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)
Species name author Taczanowski, 1877
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 30,300 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species