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Taczanowski's Tinamou Nothoprocta taczanowskii

Justification
This species is Vulnerable because it is known from few locations within a small range, where its apparently required habitat is subject to continuing degradation. This is presumably causing some population declines.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
36 cm. Dark, finely-marked tinamou. Grey head and neck with blackish crown and face markings. Dusky upperparts with thin, buff stripes and inconspicuous brown barring. Black and buff mottling on wing-coverts. Tawny flight feathers, barred blackish. Pale greyish buff throat. Grey breast with buffy spots bordered black. Rest of underparts buff, barred dusky. Long, blackish, curved bill. Juvenile generally richer brown. Similar spp. Much darker and browner than other sympatric species. Voice Loud, cackling cuyy-cuyy when flushed.

Distribution and population
Nothoprocta taczanowskii is uncommon and probably local on the eastern massifs of the Andes (in the upper parts of deep valleys intersecting the Cordillera Oriental and in intermontane basins in the Cordillera Central) in Peru, and the adjacent La Paz department, Bolivia (Vogel et al. 2001). In Peru, there are recent records from several sites in Apurímac, Cuzco and Puno (Clements and Shany 2001), but it has not been recorded in the Chincheros/Pampa Valley area, north-west Apurímac, since 1970. The Cordillera de Huanzo, southern Apurímac, has produced only one specimen (collected in 1977) and those from the northern Cordillera de Carabaya, Cuzco, were taken in 1871. It has been recorded from the Maraynioc area, Junín, but there have probably not been any surveys since the last records in 1939 (J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999, 2007). The species was recorded for the first time in Bolivia in 1999, when one male was collected and three to four juveniles observed in Apolobamba National Integrated Management Reserve, La Paz (Vogel et al. 2001). Three further records were obtained at an additional locality within the reserve in 2000 (Vogel 2002).

Population justification
The species is described as uncommon, with a population estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The species faces intense hunting pressure in many parts of its range, especially where it occurs in proximity to human habitation. It is also negatively affected by the burning of pampas grassland. However, clearing of tropical forests, and the resultant habitats created benefit the species (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Ecology
It inhabits mosaics of cloud forest (Podocarpus, Eugenia, Escallonia, Polylepis), scrub, pastures, fields, open rocky or grassy areas, mainly in humid or semi-humid montane areas, but has also been recorded at or just above the treeline (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). Scrub or woodland habitats are probably a requisite (J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999, 2007), and it probably does not nest in cultivated or pastoral land. Its known elevational range is 2,700-4,000 m. It frequently feeds on tuber crops, especially potatoes. Eggs and chicks have been collected in April and May (Junín) and October (Puno) (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990).


Threats
Temperate woodlands and shrubby grasslands in the Andes have been diminishing for centuries because of human activities, such as frequent burning of grassland, and cutting, burning and livestock-grazing in high-altitude copses and shrubby patches (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). It is also hunted for food.

Conservation Actions Underway
There have been surveys of its high-altitude habitats, and measures have been proposed for their conservation (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). It has been found in Ampay Forest National Sanctuary (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996), and the recent Bolivian records were in Apolobamba National Integrated Management Reserve (Vogel et al. 2001, Vogel 2002). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey appropriate habitat near the historical Junín locality and the humid slope/dry basin transition zone around the "Río Mantaro bend" (Junín, Huancavelica and Ayacucho) (J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999, 2007). Surveys for the species on semi-humid slopes at the treeline ecotone in western Bolivia (Vogel et al. 2001). Research the species's ecological requirements, including the effects of burning of high elevation pastures (Vogel et al. 2001). Regulate the use of fire (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). Reintroduce old high-yielding agricultural techniques (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). Restrict grazing (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). Facilitate low-impact ecotourism and associated trades that generate income for local people (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). Encourage local people to take a leading role in land-use management and restoration schemes (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996). Make social and political reforms to deal with existing land-right conflicts, and encourage sustainable use on a large-scale (Fjeldså and Kessler 1996).

References
Clements, J. F.; Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Fjeldså, J.; Kessler, M. 1996. Conserving the biological diversity of Polylepis woodlands of the highland of Peru and Bolivia. NORDECO, Copenhagen.

Fjeldså, J.; Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Apollo Books, Copenhagen.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Vogel, C. J. 2002. Additional records of Taczanowski's Tinamou Nothoprocta taczanowskii in Bolivia. Cotinga 17: 80-81.

Vogel, C. J.; Herrera, M.; Olivera A, M. A. 2001. First record of Taczanowski's Tinamou (Nothoprocta taczanowskii) for Bolivia. Ornitologia Neotropical 12: 181-182.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Symes, A., Clay, R., Symes, A., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Fjeldså, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Nothoprocta taczanowskii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Tinamidae (Tinamous)
Species name author Sclater & Salvin, 1875
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 16,700 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species