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Gadwall Mareca strepera

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 17,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Unknown -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.3,200,000-3,800,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea and <c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are stable, have unknown trends or are increasing (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (506% increase over 40 years, equating to a 56.9% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Albania Native Extant       Yes
Algeria Native Extant Yes      
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Armenia Native Extant       Yes
Austria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahamas Native Extant        
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes    
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant     Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant     Yes  
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
Cameroon Vagrant Extant        
Canada Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant        
Croatia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant     Yes  
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant     Yes Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant       Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Haiti Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Jamaica Vagrant Extant        
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant   Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kiribati Native Extinct Yes      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant       Yes
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes    
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malaysia Native Extant        
Mali Vagrant Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Marshall Islands Unknown Extant        
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant     Yes Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant       Yes
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
Niger Vagrant Extant        
Nigeria Vagrant Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes    
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Qatar Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes    
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant       Yes
Singapore Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant     Yes  
Slovakia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
Somalia Vagrant Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes    
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Algeria Garaet Haouas site factsheet
Algeria Lac Fetzara site factsheet
Algeria Lac Oubeïra site factsheet
Algeria Lac Tonga site factsheet
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel site factsheet
Austria Lower course of the Traun site factsheet
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen site factsheet
Bangladesh Aila Beel site factsheet
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor site factsheet
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river site factsheet
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam site factsheet
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel site factsheet
Belarus Bielaje fish farm site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belarus Paliessie fish farm site factsheet
Belarus Sialiec site factsheet
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty site factsheet
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde site factsheet
Belgium Kuifeend and Blokkersdijk site factsheet
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde site factsheet
Belgium Zegge site factsheet
China (mainland) Cang Shan Er Hai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng site factsheet
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan site factsheet
Czech Republic Ceskobudejovicke rybniky ponds site factsheet
Czech Republic Hermansky stav-Odra-Poolsi wetlands site factsheet
Czech Republic Poodri site factsheet
Czech Republic Rezabinec pond site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
Czech Republic Zehunský rybník pond site factsheet
Denmark Maribo lakes site factsheet
Estonia Koigi site factsheet
Estonia Mullutu site factsheet
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays site factsheet
Estonia Sutu bay site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Finland Suomenoja site factsheet
France Brenne centrale site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France La Dombes site factsheet
France Lac de Grand-Lieu site factsheet
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux site factsheet
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient site factsheet
France Plaine du Forez site factsheet
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg site factsheet
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg site factsheet
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim site factsheet
Greece Evros delta site factsheet
India Bardha Dam site factsheet
India Kanjli Lake site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
India Patna Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Susangerd marshes site factsheet
Iraq Baquba wetlands site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah site factsheet
Iraq Hoshiya and Saaroot site factsheet
Iraq Razzaza Lake (Bahr Al Milh) site factsheet
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands site factsheet
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon site factsheet
Italy Valli di Argenta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Mongolia Darkhad Depression site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake site factsheet
Morocco Merja Zerga site factsheet
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section site factsheet
Netherlands Biesbosch site factsheet
Netherlands Haringvliet site factsheet
Netherlands Hollands Diep site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Volkerak site factsheet
Netherlands Lauwersmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Markiezaat site factsheet
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen site factsheet
Netherlands Oude Venen site factsheet
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake site factsheet
Poland Insko Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Odra river valley site factsheet
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley site factsheet
Poland Nida Rivar Valley site factsheet
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir site factsheet
Poland Swidwie lake site factsheet
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley site factsheet
Poland Warta River Mouth site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Ilfov reservoir site factsheet
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bykovo lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'ye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Shchuch'ye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Ikski area site factsheet
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Gallocanta lake site factsheet
Spain Guadalquivir marshes site factsheet
Spain River Ebro dam site factsheet
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes site factsheet
Switzerland 'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir site factsheet
Switzerland Klingnau reservoir site factsheet
Switzerland Lake Constance: Bay of Ermatingen site factsheet
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia site factsheet
Turkey Bafa Lake site factsheet
Turkey Ereğli Plain site factsheet
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta site factsheet
Turkey Sultan Marsh site factsheet
Ukraine Ikva river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Oril' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Avon Valley site factsheet
United Kingdom Broadland site factsheet
United Kingdom Lea Valley site factsheet
United Kingdom Loch Leven site factsheet
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley site factsheet
United Kingdom Ouse Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Rutland Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies site factsheet
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes site factsheet
United Kingdom Upper Nene Valley Gravel Pits site factsheet
USA Active Delta (Mississippi River Birdsfoot Delta) site factsheet
USA Atchafalaya Delta site factsheet
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Mareca strepera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 17,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species