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Serra do Mar Tyrannulet Phylloscartes difficilis

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Phylloscartes difficilis occurs in south-east Brazil (Espírito Santo and south Minas Gerais to north-east Rio Grande do Sul) at 900-2,150 m, where it is uncommon.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon to fairly common' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going decline is suspected owing to habitat loss.

Ecology
It is resident in the lower growth of montane evergreen forest and edge (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Parker et al. 1996).

Threats
Its montane forests have suffered less destruction than adjacent lowland areas, but the isolated patches in the north of its range have virtually disappeared owing to the expansion of pasture and cultivation.

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Itatiaia National Park. Conservation Actions Proposed
Effectively protect areas where the species occurs. Study its ecology and its ability to persist in degraded and fragmented habitats. Use habitat loss data from mapping to give estimate of declines.

References
Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes difficilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)
Species name author (Ihering & Ihering, 1907)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 154,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species