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Sao Paulo Tyrannulet Phylloscartes paulista

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened as it is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline as a result of habitat losses. It was previously downlisted from Vulnerable as rates of habitat loss have slowed in some parts of its range, and its use of secondary habitats suggested that it may not be as threatened by the loss of mature forest as previously thought.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
Spelling of specific name follows SACC (2007).

Synonym(s)
Phylloscartes paulistus BirdLife International (2000), Phylloscartes paulistus Collar et al. (1994), Phylloscartes paulistus Collar and Andrew (1988), Phylloscartes paulistus Stotz et al. (1996), Phylloscartes paulistus Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Phylloscartes paulistus BirdLife International (2004)

Identification
10.5 cm. Small, green-and-yellow tyrannulet. Pale greenish-olive above with lemon-yellow underparts. Lemon-yellow face with dusky loral spot. Narrow, pale yellowish supercilium wraps around rear of prominent, dark auricular crescent. Similar spp. Oustalet's Tyrannulet P. oustaleti is larger, has bolder face pattern, more horizontal posture, and cocked tail is constantly quivered. Voice Subtle but strident fuí-ri-ríp.

Distribution and population
Phylloscartes paulista occurs in south-east Brazil, east Paraguay and north-east Argentina. In Brazil, it is found in the Atlantic forests of Espírito Santo south to Santa Catarina (do Rosário 1996; Naka et al. 2011), and is considered fairly common in some protected areas, including the "Paranapiacaba fragment" (the 120,000 ha mosaic of Alto Ribeira, Intervales and Carlos Botelho state parks) and the Ilha do Cardoso (Ridgely and Tudor 1994) in São Paulo and Iguaçu in Paraná. In eastern Paraguay it has been recorded from Canindeyú south to Itapúa (Brooks et al. 1993, Hayes 1995, Lowen et al. 1996), but is uncommon. All Argentine records are from Misiones, where it is rare in Iguazú (Saibene et al. 1996). Due to its inconspicuous voice, its presence is likely to be overlooked, and it probably has a continuous distribution along the slopes of the Serra do Mar and Serra de Paranapicaba massifs at least between southern Rio de Janeiro (Parati) and Paraná.

Population justification
The global population probably numbers fewer than 10,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 2004). It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss.

Ecology
It inhabits the middle storey of the lowland Atlantic forest interior, principally below 400 m, but locally up to 1,000 m (Clay et al. 1998; Naka et al. 2011), and will also use secondary forest.

Threats
Less than 20% of the original extent of this habitat remains intact (Brown and Brown 1992) owing to agricultural conversion and deforestation for coffee, banana and rubber plantations (Fearnside 1996). Remaining forest suffers from increasing urbanisation, agricultural expansion and associated road building (Dinerstein et al. 1995), but habitat destruction in the Brazilian range of the species has slowed significantly (although continuing in places), and the prospects of future losses are not as dire as in the last decades. Also, the species is known to use second growth, making it less vulnerable to the loss of mature forest.

Conservation Actions Underway
It is fairly common at Intervales State Park, Iguaçu National Park and Ilha do Cardoso State Park, Brazil. It is also present in Caaguazú, San Rafael and Ybycuí National Parks, Paraguay; and Iguazú National Park, Argentina, as well as several other (at least nominally) protected areas (del Hoyo et al. 2004). Conservation Actions Proposed
Effectively protect areas where the species occurs. Study its ecology and its ability to persist in degraded and fragmented habitats.

References
Brooks, T. M.; Barnes, R.; Bartrina, L.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Clay, R. P.; Esquivel, E. Z.; Etcheverry, N. I.; Lowen, J. C.; Vincent, J. 1993. Bird surveys and conservation in the Paraguayan Atlantic forest: Project CANOPY '92 final report. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Brown, K. S. J.; Brown, G. G. 1992. Habitat alteration and species loss in Brazilian forests. In: Whitmore, T.C.; Sayer, J.A. (ed.), Tropical forest and extinction, pp. 119-142. Chapman and Hall, London.

Clay, R. P.; Capper, D. R.; Mazar Barnett, J.; Burfield, I. J.; Esquivel, E. Z.; Fariña, R.; Kennedy, C. P.; Perrens, M.; Pople, R. G. 1998. White-winged Nightjars Caprimulgus candicans and cerrado conservation: the key findings of project Aguará Ñu 1997. Cotinga: 52-56.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2004. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 9: Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

do Rosário, L. A. 1996. As aves em Santa Catarina: distribuiçao geográfica e meio ambiente. Glorianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Fearnside, P. 1996. Brazil. In: Harcourt, C.S.; Sayer, J.A. (ed.), The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas, pp. 229-248. Simon & Schuster, New York and London.

Hayes, F. E. 1995. Status, distribution and biogeography of the birds of Paraguay. American Birding Association, Colorado Springs.

Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; Tobias, J. A. 1996. Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the final reports of Projects Canopy '92 and Yacutinga '95). CSB Conservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Naka, L.N. 2011. Avian distribution patterns in the Guiana Shield: implications for the delimitation of Amazonian areas of endemism. Journal of Biogeography 38(4): 681-696.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Saibene, C. A.; Castelino, M. A.; Rey, N. R.; Herrera, J.; Calo, J. 1996. Inventario de las aves del parque nacional "Iguazu", Misiones, Argentina. LOLA, Buenos Aires.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Capper, D., Harding, M., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Sharpe, C J

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes paulista. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)
Species name author Ihering & Ihering, 1907
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 473,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species