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Antioquia Bristle-tyrant Phylloscartes lanyoni
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Justification
This species qualifies as Endangered owing to its very small, severely fragmented range, within which habitat loss is occurring at a rapid rate. Its population is assumed to be very small and declining, and made up of extremely small subpopulations.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
11 cm. Bright yellow-and-olive flycatcher with contrasting grey crown. Incomplete eye-ring. Duskier wings and tail with two yellow wing-bars. Bright yellow underparts. Small, thin bill, black maxilla, flesh lower mandible. Similar spp. Spectacled Bristle-tyrant P. orbitalis has complete eye-ring, narrower whitish-yellow wing-bars, yellowish-olive underparts, and grey crown blending into greenish back. Marble-faced Bristle-tyrant P. ophthalmicus is larger, with distinct black auricular patch. Voice Calls are individual, short, slightly up-slurred weeet.

Distribution and population
Phylloscartes lanyoni occurs locally on the east and north slopes of the central Andes in Caldas and Antioquia, and on the west slope of the east Andes in Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander, Colombia. It is known from the type-series, taken in the lower Cauca Valley at the northern tip of the Andes in 1948, and a few modern localities in the middle and upper Magdalena Valley. It has been seen on several occasions at Río Claro Natural Reserve, and recently also at Anará (Renjifo et al. 2002), Antioquia, as well as near La Victoria, Caldas. It is respectively uncommon and common at El Vergel, Cundinamarca, and Monte del Diablo, Boyacá (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles et al. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999) and is also present in Yacopi and La Palma municipalities, Cundinamarca (O. Cortes in litt. 2007).

Population justification
This species's global population is estimated at a few thousand individuals (del Hoyo et al. 2004). It is placed in the band 1,000-2,499 individuals, equating to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and ongoing decline is suspected, owing to rates of habitat loss.

Ecology
It inhabits semi-deciduous foothill-forest at 450-900 m (Stiles et al. 1999). Observations have been made in tall second growth, regenerating, natural tree gaps, and disturbed remnant forest (O. Cortes in litt. 2007). It is often in mosaics of these habitat-types and pastoral or cultivated land (Stiles et al. 1999), although this use of habitat may reflect availability rather than preference. Nesting has been recorded in March (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999), with four birds in a family group seen in June (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). It often joins mixed-species flocks (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999).

Threats
Logging, livestock-farming, arable cultivation, infrastucture development, oil extraction and mining have all played a part in the destruction of habitat in its range (Stiles et al. 1999). The northern tip of the central Andes has been progressively settled and deforested since the 19th century, although some extensive forests survive (Forero 1989, Wege and Long 1995). The middle Magdalena Valley was rapidly opened up, colonised, logged and farmed during the 1960s and 1970s, with nearly 40,000 km2 of forest cleared in little over a decade, although regeneration has begun following land abandonment in some areas (Stiles et al. 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected in the small (c.1 km2) Río Claro Natural Reserve, which also buffers adjacent forested areas from colonisation (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). The c.4 km2 forest at Monte del Diablo has been preserved by local people for hunting, while that at La Victoria is a 0.2 km2 watershed reserve (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles et al. 1999). Conservation Actions Proposed
Search for the species in any potentially suitable habitat, e.g. the interior of the Serranía de las Quinchas, and isolated remnants at the northern tip of the central Andes. Protect such areas if found (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles et al. 1999). Conduct surveys within the known range to clarify its distribution and conservation status. Study its ecological requirements.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Forero, E. 1989. Colombia. In: Campbell, D.G.; Hammond, H.D. (ed.), Floristic inventory of tropical countries, pp. 355-361. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Stiles, F. G.; Rosselli, L.; Bohórquez, C. I. 1999. New and noteworthy records of birds from the middle Magdalena valley of Colombia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 113-129.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Cortes, O., Mark, T., Salaman, P., Stiles, E.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes lanyoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Antioquia bristle-tyrant (Phylloscartes lanyoni) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)
Species name author Graves, 1988
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 850 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species