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Sharp-tailed Tyrant Culicivora caudacuta

Justification
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it appears to be undergoing a rapid decline owing to continuing habitat degradation and destruction.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
11 cm. Small brownish tyrant. Well-marked head with crown black, supercilium white and eyestripe black. Upperparts dark brown, heavily streaked with buff. Brown tail feathers long, slender and pointed. Underparts white with cinnamon flanks. Voice Thin interogative ree?.....ree?.....

Distribution and population
Culicivora caudacuta occurs in east Bolivia (Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz), extreme north and south-central Brazil (Amapá, south-west Bahia, south Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, central Goiás, Distrito Federal, Minas Gerais, west Paraná, São Paulo), east and south-west Paraguay and north-east Argentina (east Formosa, east Chaco, Corrientes, north Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, south Misiones) (Armonía 1995; Canevari et al. 1991; Hayes 1995; Ridgely and Tudor 1994; Sick 1993; J. M. C. da Silva in litt. 1999; Souza 1999). In Brazil it is found mostly in the upland cerrado of the Planalto Central, Central, a more restricted distribution compared to other cerrado birds. It is now mostly rare and very localised but there are recent range extensions from Entre Ríos (Pearman and Abadie 1995) and La Paz (Parker et al. 1991) and it continues to be observed frequently at known locations in Paraguay.

Population justification
Although this species is rare and localised, it has a very large range, and numbers are likely to exceed 10,000 mature individuals. It is thus placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, which equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with rates habitat loss within its range.

Ecology
It inhabits campo cerrado and open grassland, mainly in dry grassland and occasionally in shorter, scrubbier and wetter areas (Lowen et al. 1996), and sometimes frequents the transitional zone between these habitats (D. R. Capper et al. in litt. 2000; Mitchell et al. 1997). However, breeders (October-March) are apparently confined to dry grassland (Clay et al. 1998; Lowen et al. 1996), with nests in Formosa mostly located in clumps of Vernonia chamaedrys (Di Giácomo 1996).

Threats
Conversion to soybeans, exportable crops and Eucalyptus plantations (encouraged by government land reform) has severely impacted campo cerrado habitats (Parker and Willis 1997), with the greatest impact is in the southern part of the biome. Grasslands in south Paraguay and Argentina are additionally threatened by extensive cattle ranching (Lowen et al. 1996; Pearman and Abadie 1995). Observations from Canindeyú department, Paraguay (towards the edge of the species's range), demonstrated an apparent preference for older campo cerrado habitats that had not experienced a spring burn and where Loudetia grass species sprout up to c. 2 m tall during the summer months. This taller vegetation does not occur under an annual (or more frequent) burn regime, as occurs at many cerrado localities (R. Pople in litt. 2003). This lack of availability of preferred habitat along with the frequent occurrence of fires is a possible threat.

Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected by Paraguayan law where it is considered Vulnerable on a national level. Guyra Paraguay and Entidad Binacional Yacyreta are currently studying threatened grassland species at Reserva Isla Yacyreta and other IBAs in the south of the country (H. del Castillo in litt. 2012).Conservation Actions Proposed
Study migratory habits of sub-populations in order to devise conservation efforts for this species. Conduct surveys to assess population size and rate of declines. Increase the area of suitable habitat with protected status, including the establishment of effectively protected areas in southern Paraguay. Secure other private properties inside Cerrado de Laguna Blanca IBA where the Laguna Blanca private nature reserve is failing to protect the species (H. del Castillo in litt. 2012).

References
Armonía. 1995. Lista de las aves de Bolivia. Armonía, Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

Canevari, M. 1991. Nueva guia de las aves Argentinas. Fundación Acindar, Buenos Aires.

Clay, R. P.; Capper, D. R.; Mazar Barnett, J.; Burfield, I. J.; Esquivel, E. Z.; Fariña, R.; Kennedy, C. P.; Perrens, M.; Pople, R. G. 1998. White-winged Nightjars Caprimulgus candicans and cerrado conservation: the key findings of project Aguará Ñu 1997. Cotinga: 52-56.

Di Giacomo, A. G. 1996. Biología reproductiva del Tachurí Coludo Culicivora caudacuta.

Hayes, F. E. 1995. Status, distribution and biogeography of the birds of Paraguay. American Birding Association, Colorado Springs.

Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; Tobias, J. A. 1996. Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the final reports of Projects Canopy '92 and Yacutinga '95). CSB Conservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Madroño N., A.; Esquivel, E. Z. 1995. Reserva Natural del Bosque de Mbaracayú. Cotinga: 52-57.

Mitchell, R. A.; Leigh-Hunt, S.; Stuart, T.; Chamberlain, T. 1997. San Joaquín '96: a biological expedition to the cerrado of Beni Department, Bolivia.

Parker, T. A.; Castillo, U. A.; Gell-Mann, M.; Rocha, O. O. 1991. Records of new and unusual birds from northern Bolivia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 111: 120-138.

Parker, T. A.; Willis, E. O. 1997. Notes on three tiny grassland flycatchers, with comments on the disappearance of South American fire-diversified savannas. Ornithological Monographs 48: 549-555.

Pearman, M.; Abadie, E. I. Undated. Mesopotamia grasslands and wetlands survey, 1991--1993: conservation of threatened birds and habitat in north-east Argentina.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Souza, D. G. S. 1999. Novos registros de espécies de aves no estado da Bahia e sua correlaçao com os ecossistemas. Atualidades Ornitológicas 88: 6-7.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Babarskas, M., Capper, D., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Araujo Guss, C.O., Capper, D., Herrera, M., Hesse, C., Lesterhuis, A., Malacco, G., Minns, J., Olmos, F., Pople, R., da Silva, J., del Castillo, H.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Culicivora caudacuta. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Sharp-tailed tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)
Species name author (Vieillot, 1818)
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,740,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species