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LC
Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,850,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,850,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.4 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 65,000-66,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and <c.50 wintering individuals in China; <c.100 breeding pairs and <c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Korea and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Austria Introduced Extant Yes      
Belarus Vagrant Extant        
Belgium Introduced Extant Yes      
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Introduced Extant        
France Introduced Extant        
Germany Introduced Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
India Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Myanmar Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Nepal Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Netherlands Introduced Extant Yes      
North Korea Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Introduced Extant        
South Korea Native Extant       Yes
Spain Vagrant Extant        
Switzerland Introduced Extant        
Taiwan (China) Native Extant   Yes    
Thailand Vagrant Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Introduced Extant       Yes
Vietnam Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Baihe-Wanbao site factsheet
China (mainland) Wuyuan Datangwu Reservoir site factsheet
Japan Futatsuno reservoir site factsheet
Japan Kanogawa reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Bukchon site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aix galericulata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,850,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species