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Buff-breasted Tody-tyrant Hemitriccus mirandae

Justification
A combination of an ongoing and rapid decline in habitat, a small population and a small, disjunct and severely fragmented range qualify this species as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
10 cm. Small flycatcher. Uniform olivaceous upperparts. Duskier wings and tail fringed yellowish-olive. Broad creamy-white tertial edgings. Pale, buffy, creamy-white occular area, cheeks and underparts. Whiter on belly and yellowish on crissum. Cinnamon iris. Voice Call consists of groups of 3 notes, a short squeaky chweet chweet chweet.

Distribution and population
Hemitriccus mirandae has an apparently disjunct range in north-east Brazil. It is known from Serra da Ibiapaba and Serra do Baturité in Ceará, Areia in Paraíba (Teixeira et al. 1993), Garanhuns, Tapacurá and Lagoa do Ouro in Pernambuco (Teixeira et al. 1993) and Pedra Talhada and Murici (T. Mark in litt. 2003) in Alagoas. It has been described as very common over an extensive range (Teixeira et al. 1993) but it has also been considered fairly common in Serra do Baturité, uncommon at Pedra Talhada (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999) and there are few documented records from elsewhere within its highly fragmented range.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with rates habitat loss within its range.

Ecology
It occurs mainly in dense, tall vine-tangles within seasonally dry, semi-deciduous woodlands. These are concentrated on isolated serras at elevations of 600-900 m (Parker et al. 1996). It has also been observed in the understorey of rather humid forest and dry forest with many tall Orbignya palms, and is apparently adapted to secondary formations such as degraded capoeira. It forages at 1.5-10 m above ground, most often at 2-5 m, actively scanning for arthropod prey.

Threats
There has been massive deforestation within its disjunct and fragmented range. Only 1% of original forest remains in Serra do Baturité, largely as a result of clearing for "sun" coffee since the early 1970s (R. Otoch per F. Olmos in litt. 1999), and the situation is similar in Serra da Ibiapaba. Remaining habitat is threatened by the construction of holiday homes, and fires (R. Otoch per F. Olmos in litt. 1999). Only 2% of original forest cover remains in Alagoas and Pernambuco and 6% in Paraíba (Brown and Brown 1992), with most forest replaced by sugarcane plantations. Remnant patches are highly fragmented and threatened by fires spreading from adjacent plantations.

Conservation Actions Underway
Significant areas are being reforested with native trees at Pedra Talhada Biological Reserve, where protection is enforced by guards and apparently welcomed by local communities (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). The effectiveness of the Serra do Baturité Environmental Protection Area is unclear, but local hotels protect some habitat (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). It may also persist in Tapacurá Ecological Station.Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey Tapacurá, upland areas in Ceará and other potential sites to ascertain the species's presence and status. Ensure the de facto protection of remaining habitat in the Serra do Baturité. Protect habitat in the Serra da Ibiapaba, and at Areia, Garanhuns and Lagoa do Ouro. Continue conservation efforts at Pedra Talhada.

References
Brown, K. S. J.; Brown, G. G. 1992. Habitat alteration and species loss in Brazilian forests. In: Whitmore, T.C.; Sayer, J.A. (ed.), Tropical forest and extinction, pp. 119-142. Chapman and Hall, London.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Teixeira, D. M.; Otoch, R.; Luigi, G.; Raposo, M. A.; de Almeida, A. C. C. 1993. Notes on some birds of northeastern Brazil (5). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 113: 48-52.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Harding, M., Pople, R., Symes, A., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Mark, T., Olmos, F., Otoch, R., Studer, A., Whittaker, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Hemitriccus mirandae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Buff-breasted tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus mirandae) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-flycatchers)
Species name author (Snethlage, 1925)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,800 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species