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Mindanao Broadbill Eurylaimus steerii

Justification
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small, seriously fragmented population, and is declining rapidly as a result of lowland deforestation.

Taxonomic source(s)
Lambert, F.; Woodcock, M. 1996. Pittas, broadbills and asities. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Taxonomic note
Eurylaimus steerii (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into E. steerii and E. samarensis following Lambert and Woodcock (1996).

Identification
17 cm. Small, brightly coloured passerine. Black throat and face. Green eye surrounded by large, prominent sky-blue wattle. Large, broad, pale blue bill. Maroon-purple crown, bordered by white nuchal collar. Dark grey mantle, bright chestnut rump and tail. Black wings with prominent white and yellow bar across tertials and secondaries. Lilac underparts becoming yellowish-white on lower belly. Female as male but gleaming white breast and belly. Juvenile duller. Voice Unknown. Hints Unobtrusive, joins mixed feeding flocks. Frequents understorey and middle layers of forest.

Distribution and population
Eurylaimus steerii is endemic to the Philippines, where it is known from Mindanao and neighbouring Dinagat, Siargao and Basilan (including the islets of Poneas and Malamaui) (Collar et al. 1999). Formerly widespread and fairly common, documented records since 1980 derive from just five sites, three on Mindanao (southern Zamboanga Peninsula, Mt Apo and Bislig) and one on each of Poneas and Siargao, indicating that it is now uncommon and local.

Population justification
A preliminary population estimate of fewer than 10,000 mature individuals is used here, but this requires further documentation.

Trend justification
Intense pressures on habitat are suspected to have driven rapid declines in the past. The rate of decline may begin to slow in the future as the few remaining habitat patches are increasingly confined to protected areas.

Ecology
It inhabits the lower and middle storeys of primary and adjacent or admixed secondary forest, generally well below 1,000 m, but occasionally up to 1,200 m. There are occasional records from mangroves and even scrub forest on dry, rocky substrates.

Threats
Its entire range has suffered extensive lowland deforestation. In 1988, forest cover had been reduced to an estimated 29% on Mindanao, most of it above 1,000 m. Most remaining lowland forest is now leased to logging concessions or mining applications. Dinagat has been virtually totally deforested owing to illegal logging and chromite surface-mining and little forest remains on Siargao, Basilan or Malamaui. Much of the forest at the key site of Bislig was cleared under concession by 2005 when deforestation  under concession ceased, although forest loss there has since accelerated owing to illegal settlers and illicit logging (R. Hutchinson in litt. 2012). Forest fires, associated with insurgency, are a problem on the Zamboanga Peninsula.

Conservation Actions Underway
There are recent records from three protected areas: Mt Apo Natural Park, Pasonanca Natural Park and Siargao Island Protected Landscape. In addition, there are pre-1980 records from Mt Hilong-hilong Watershed Reserve, the Basilan Natural Biotic Area and Mt Matutum Forest Reserve, which is proposed for national park status. Conservation Actions Proposed
Identify and survey remaining lowland forest tracts, particularly on Siargao and around Mts Hilong-hilong, Sugarloaf, Matutum and Mayo (on Mindanao) to establish its current distribution and status. Investigate its reported use of mangroves and research its ecological requirements. Propose sites supporting key populations for protection, where appropriate. Ensure that proposed protected areas are gazetted and adequately protected.

References
Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Lowen, J., Peet, N., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Hutchinson, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Eurylaimus steerii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Mindanao broadbill (Eurylaimus steerii) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Eurylaimidae (Broadbills)
Species name author Sharpe, 1876
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 97,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species