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European Storm-petrel Hydrobates pelagicus

Justification
Although this species may have a restricted range, it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
About 90% of the known breeding population is concentrated in the Faroe Islands (Denmark; 150,000-400,000 pairs), United Kingdom (20,000-150,000 pairs), Ireland (50,000-100,000 pairs) and Iceland (50,000-100,000 pairs), with smaller colonies in France (400-600 pairs), Greece (10-30 pairs), Italy (1,500-2,000 pairs), Malta (5,000 pairs), Norway (1,000-10,000 pairs), Spain (1,700-2,000 pairs) and a further 1,000 pairs on the Canary Islands, Spain. The species winters off western and southern Africa.

Population justification
In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 430,000-510,000 breeding pairs, equating to 1,290,000-1,530,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004); Brooke (2004) also estimated the total population to number around 1,500,000.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to predation by invasive species, pollution and development of breeding sites.

Ecology
This is a marine species feeding mainly on small fish, squid and crustaceans, but it will also feed on medusae and offal. It feeds mainly on the wing by pattering and fishing, and will occaisionally follow ships and attend trawlers. Breeding starts in May and June, resulting in the formation of colonies on rocky ground on offshore islands and stacks that are largely free of mammalian predators (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Threats
The accidental introduction of predators is the main threat to this species, particularly in southern Europe and the Mediterranean. In some areas, increases in numbers of skuas and large gulls appear to have increased the rate of predation. There may be some risk from eating contaminated food items or taking indisgestible matter but, by feeding in flight, the species is less vulnerable to oil spills than some other seabirds (Newbury et al. 1998, Tucker and Heath 1994).

References
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Brooke, M. De L. 2004. Albatrosses and petrels across the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Newbery, P.; Ratcliffe, N.; Bainbridge, I.; Broad, R.; Brown, A.; Buisson, R.; Douse, A.; Dunn, E.; Ellis, P.; Meek, E.; Robins, M.; Williams, G.; Williams, I. 1998. Species action plan 0052 Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus.

Tucker, G. M.; Heath, M. F. 1994. Birds in Europe: their conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

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Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Butchart, S., Fisher, S., Calvert, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Hydrobates pelagicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - European storm-petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Hydrobatidae (Northern Storm-petrels)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 25,500 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species